We have cloned the cDNA encoding human PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1), a PDZ domain-containing protein of 415 amino acids, and also identified the Drosophila homologue by search of the databank. Northern blot analysis shows a single mRNA of about 2.0 kb ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. Although PICK1 proteins harbor a region homologous to arfaptin1 and arfaptin2, two proteins that bind to the ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor), this region of PICK1 does not interact with ARFs in the yeast two-hybrid system. On the other hand, the PDZ domain of PICK1 is capable of interacting with constitutively active, GTP-bound forms of ARF1 and ARF3, but neither with those of ARF5/6 nor with the GDP-bound ARFs. The PICK1-ARF interaction is abrogated by introduction of mutations in the PDZ domain or by deletion of the extreme C-terminus of ARF1. Thus, PICK1 specifically interacts with ARF1/3 in the GTP-bound state, suggesting that PICK1 participates in ARF1/3-mediated cellular processes.
"These results demonstrate that PICK1 directly interacts with Cdc42 and Rac1 via the BAR domain, with additional sequence determinants that suggest overlapping but distinct binding sites on PICK1. Rac1 has previously been shown to interact with Arfaptin BAR domain, which shows some homology to that of PICK1  . "
"To investigate the binding site between Arf1 and PICK1, we carried out co-IPs from transfected COS cells and found that a mutation in the PICK1 PDZ domain (KD27,28AA; Terashima et al., 2004) abolishes the interaction with Arf1 (Figure 2A). This is consistent with yeast two-hybrid data in a previous report, which also suggested that PICK1 interacts with the C terminus of Arf1 (Takeya et al., 2000). We show that in GST pull-down assays , deletion of the extreme C-terminal four amino acids on Arf1 (R 178 NQK 181 ) eliminates binding to PICK1 (Figure 2B). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization by PICK1 is a central mechanism to AMPA receptor (AMPAR) internalization and long-term depression (LTD), although the signaling pathways that modulate this process in response to NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation are unknown. Here, we define a function for the GTPase Arf1 in this process. We show that Arf1-GTP binds PICK1 to limit PICK1-mediated inhibition of Arp2/3 activity. Expression of mutant Arf1 that does not bind PICK1 leads to reduced surface levels of GluA2-containing AMPARs and smaller spines in hippocampal neurons, which occludes subsequent NMDA-induced AMPAR internalization and spine shrinkage. In organotypic slices, NMDAR-dependent LTD of AMPAR excitatory postsynaptic currents is abolished in neurons expressing mutant Arf1. Furthermore, NMDAR stimulation downregulates Arf1 activation and binding to PICK1 via the Arf-GAP GIT1. This study defines Arf1 as a critical regulator of actin dynamics and synaptic function via modulation of PICK1.
"The possibility that DRG PICK1 might contribute to neuropathic pain by regulating ASIC1, ASIC2, and mGluR7 functions remains to be further confirmed. It is noteworthy that during neuropathic pain PICK1 still interacts with other proteins, such as Eph receptor tyrosine kinase , dopamine transporter , and class I ADP-ribosylation factors . Whether these interactions are involved in neuropathic pain is unknown. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein interacting with C Kinase 1 (PICK1), a PDZ domain-containing scaffolding protein, interacts with multiple different proteins in the mammalian nervous system and is believed to play important roles in diverse physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we report that PICK1 is expressed in neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord dorsal horn, two major pain-related regions. PICK1 was present in approximately 29.7% of DRG neurons, most of which were small-less than 750 μm(2) in cross-sectional area. Some of these PICK1-positive cells co-labeled with isolectin B4 or calcitonin-gene-related peptide. In the dorsal horn, PICK1 immunoreactivity was concentrated in the superficial dorsal horn, where it was prominent in the postsynaptic density, axons, and dendrites. Targeted disruption of PICK1 gene did not affect basal paw withdrawal responses to acute noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli or locomotor reflex activity, but it completely blocked the induction of peripheral nerve injury-induced mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivities. PICK1 appears to be required for peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain development and to be a potential biochemical target for treating this disorder.
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