Necrotic and apoptotic cell death both play a role mediating tissue injury following brain trauma. Caspase-1 (interleukin-1beta converting enzyme) is activated and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation is detected in traumatized brain tissue. Reduction of tissue injury and free radical production following brain trauma was achieved in a transgenic mouse expressing a dominant negative inhibitor of caspase-1 in the brain. Neuroprotection was also conferred by pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 by intracerebroventricular administration of the selective inhibitor of caspase-1, acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethyl-ketone or the non-selective caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone. These results indicate that inhibition of caspase-1-like caspases reduces trauma-mediated brain tissue injury. In addition, we demonstrate an in vivo functional interaction between interleukin-1beta converting enyzme-like caspases and free radical production pathways, implicating free radical production as a downstream mediator of the caspase cell death cascade.
"COX-2 catalyzed production of prostaglandin PGE2 results in the production of free radicals. Free radical-induced lipid peroxidation is responsible for massive neuronal death following primary mechanical injury , and PGE2 itself is also neurotoxic , . In the short term, vascular permeability in response to inflammatory cell signaling leads to edema and intracranial hypertension, which further contributes to cell death , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an enormous public health problem, with 1.7 million new cases of TBI recorded annually by the Centers for Disease Control. However, TBI has proven to be an extremely challenging condition to treat. Here, we apply a nanoprodrug strategy in a mouse model of TBI. The novel nanoprodrug contains a derivative of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen in an emulsion with the antioxidant α-tocopherol. The ibuprofen derivative, Ibu2TEG, contains a tetra ethylene glycol (TEG) spacer consisting of biodegradable ester bonds. The biodegradable ester bonds ensure that the prodrug molecules break down hydrolytically or enzymatically. The drug is labeled with the fluorescent reporter Cy5.5 using nonbiodegradable bonds to 1-octadecanethiol, allowing us to reliably track its accumulation in the brain after TBI. We delivered a moderate injury using a highly reproducible mouse model of closed-skull controlled cortical impact to the parietal region of the cortex, followed by an injection of the nanoprodrug at a dose of 0.2 mg per mouse. The blood brain barrier is known to exhibit increased permeability at the site of injury. We tested for accumulation of the fluorescent drug particles at the site of injury using confocal and bioluminescence imaging of whole brains and brain slices 36 hours after administration. We demonstrated that the drug does accumulate preferentially in the region of injured tissue, likely due to an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) phenomenon. The use of a nanoprodrug approach to deliver therapeutics in TBI represents a promising potential therapeutic modality.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e61819. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061819 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Caspases are activated during post-traumatic cerebral damage process. In addition, previous studies showed that caspase-3 activity is elevated following TBI (Fink et al., 1999). Our results showed that caspase-3 activities increased significantly after TBI at 24 h. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of moderate acute alcohol administration on cysteine protease mediated neuronal apoptosis and nitric oxide production in the traumatic brain injury. A total of 29 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 250-300g were used. The rats were allocated into four groups. The first group was control (sham-operated) group in which only a craniotomy was performed, the others were alcohol, trauma and trauma+alcohol groups. Caspase-3 enzyme activity in the trauma group increased significantly in comparison with the control group. Alcohol given group showed a decreased caspase-3 enzyme activity compared to the trauma group. The level of caspase-3 enzyme activity in the alcohol+trauma group decreased in comparison to the trauma group. SF/FEL ratio of cathepsin-L enzyme activity in the trauma group was significantly higher than in the control group. Our results indicate that moderate alcohol consumption may have protective effects on apoptotic cell death after traumatic brain injury. Protective effects of moderate ethanol consumption might be related to inhibition of lysosomal protease release and nitric oxide production.
"The images of the stained specimens were captured by a digital photo camera and analyzed by Image Pro for morphometric measurement. The total lesion volume was determined by integrating the volumes at each coronal section interval as reported [41,42]. A blind investigator performed the lesion volume analyses. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of preventable death and serious morbidity in young adults. This complex pathological condition is characterized by significant blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage that stems from cerebral ischemia, inflammation, and redox imbalances in the traumatic penumbra of the injured brain. Once trauma has occurred, combating these exacerbations is the keystone of an effective TBI therapy. Following other brain injuries, nitric oxide modulators such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) maintain not only redox balance but also inhibit the mechanisms of secondary injury. Therefore, we tested whether GSNO shows efficacy in a rat model of experimental TBI.
TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult male rats. GSNO (50 microg/kg body weight) was administered at two hours after CCI. GSNO-treated injured animals (CCI+GSNO group) were compared with vehicle-treated injured animals (CCI+VEH group) in terms of tissue morphology, BBB leakage, edema, inflammation, cell death, and neurological deficit.
Treatment of the TBI animals with GSNO reduced BBB disruption as evidenced by decreased Evan's blue extravasation across brain, infiltration/activation of macrophages (ED1 positive cells), and reduced expression of ICAM-1 and MMP-9. The GSNO treatment also restored CCI-mediated reduced expression of BBB integrity proteins ZO-1 and occludin. GSNO-mediated improvements in tissue histology shown by reduction of lesion size and decreased loss of both myelin (measured by LFB staining) and neurons (assayed by TUNEL) further support the efficacy of GSNO therapy. GSNO-mediated reduced expression of iNOS in macrophages as well as decreased neuronal cell death may be responsible for the histological improvement and reduced exacerbations. In addition to these biochemical and histological improvements, GSNO-treated injured animals recovered neurobehavioral functions as evaluated by the rotarod task and neurological score measurements.
GSNO is a promising candidate to be evaluated in humans after brain trauma because it not only protects the traumatic penumbra from secondary injury and improves overall tissue structure but also maintains the integrity of BBB and reduces neurologic deficits following CCI in a rat model of experimental TBI.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 11/2009; 6(1):32. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-6-32 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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