Design, synthesis and evaluation of human telomerase inhibitors based upon a tetracyclic structural motif.
ABSTRACT There is currently significant interest in the development of inhibitors of human telomerase for the treatment of cancer. We describe here the design and synthesis of a new class of mono-substituted small-molecule inhibitors of human telomerase based upon a tetracyclic structural motif. In contrast to the structurally related molecule 9-hydroxyellipticine, recently shown to inhibit telomerase activity in cell cultures but found to be inactive in a cell-free system, we demonstrate direct inhibition of the telomerase enzyme by the tetracyclic compounds in a modified cell-free TRAP assay. The most potent compounds exhibit activity in the low micromolar range and are thus comparable with some of the more active small-molecule telomerase inhibitors based on planar aromatic chromophores, previously described by ourselves and others. These compounds may represent useful leads for the development of more potent inhibitors of human telomerase.
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ABSTRACT: Certain iminonaphtho[2,3-b]furan derivatives were synthesized from their respective carbonyl precursors in the regiospecific and the stereospecific manners. These compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative effects against four human carcinoma cells (MCF7, NCI-H460, SF-268, and K562) and the normal fibroblast cell line (Detroit 551). Among them, (Z)-4-(hydroxyimino)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-9(4H)-one (8) and (Z)-4-methoxy-iminonaphtho[2,3-b]furan-9(4H)-one (9) exhibited GI(50) values of 0.82 and 0.60 microM, respectively, against the growth of K562 cells and were inactive against the normal fibroblast Detroit 551. The selectivity index (SI) on K562 cell for 8 and 9 was >121.95 and >166.67, respectively, which is comparable to daunorubicin (SI=239) and is more favorable than camptothecin (SI=16.5). The cell cycle analysis on K562 indicated that these compounds arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. The morphological assessment and DNA fragmentation analysis indicated that 9-induced cell apoptosis in K562 cells. The apoptotic induction may through caspase-3 activity and cleavage of PARP.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 07/2010; 18(14):5172-82. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: G-quadruplexes are special secondary structures adopted in some guanine-rich DNA sequences. As guanine-rich sequences are present in important regions of the eukaryotic genome, such as telomeres and the regulatory regions of many genes, such structures may play important roles in the regulation of biological events in the body. G-quadruplexes have become valid targets for new anticancer drugs in the past few decades. Many leading compounds that target these structures have been reported, and a few of them have entered preclinical or clinical trials. Nonetheless, the selectivity of this kind of antitumor compound has yet to be improved in order to suppress the side effects caused by nonselective binding. As drug design targets, the topology and structural characteristics of quadruplexes, their possible biological roles, and the modes and sites of small-ligand binding to these structures should be understood clearly. Herein we provide a summary of published research that has set out to address the above problem to provide useful information on the design of small ligands that target G-quadruplexes. This review also covers research methodologies that have been developed to study the binding of ligands to G-quadruplexes.ChemMedChem 06/2008; 3(5):690-713. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular modeling studies carried out with experimental DNA models with the sequence d[AG(3)(T(2)AG(3))(3)] suggest that the introduction of a net positive charge onto the side chain of a series of fluorenone carboxamides can improve G-quadruplex binding. The terminal morpholino moiety was replaced with a novel N-methylmorpholinium cation starting from two 4-carboxamide compounds. A different substitution on the fluorenone ring was also investigated and submitted to the same quaternarization process. All compounds were analyzed for their DNA binding properties by competition dialysis methods. In vitro antiproliferative tests were carried out against two different tumor cell lines. Docking experiments were conducted by including all four known human repeat unit G-quadruplex DNA sequences (27 experimentally determined conformations) against the most active fluorenone derivatives. The results of theoretical, biophysical, and in vitro experiments indicate two novel derivatives as lead compounds for the development of a new generation of G-quadruplex ligands with greater potency and selectivity.ChemMedChem 02/2010; 5(4):575-83. · 2.84 Impact Factor