Design, synthesis and evaluation of human telomerase inhibitors based upon a tetracyclic structural motif.
ABSTRACT There is currently significant interest in the development of inhibitors of human telomerase for the treatment of cancer. We describe here the design and synthesis of a new class of mono-substituted small-molecule inhibitors of human telomerase based upon a tetracyclic structural motif. In contrast to the structurally related molecule 9-hydroxyellipticine, recently shown to inhibit telomerase activity in cell cultures but found to be inactive in a cell-free system, we demonstrate direct inhibition of the telomerase enzyme by the tetracyclic compounds in a modified cell-free TRAP assay. The most potent compounds exhibit activity in the low micromolar range and are thus comparable with some of the more active small-molecule telomerase inhibitors based on planar aromatic chromophores, previously described by ourselves and others. These compounds may represent useful leads for the development of more potent inhibitors of human telomerase.
- SourceAvailable from: Chih-Hua Tseng[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Certain iminonaphtho[2,3-b]furan derivatives were synthesized from their respective carbonyl precursors in the regiospecific and the stereospecific manners. These compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative effects against four human carcinoma cells (MCF7, NCI-H460, SF-268, and K562) and the normal fibroblast cell line (Detroit 551). Among them, (Z)-4-(hydroxyimino)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-9(4H)-one (8) and (Z)-4-methoxy-iminonaphtho[2,3-b]furan-9(4H)-one (9) exhibited GI(50) values of 0.82 and 0.60 microM, respectively, against the growth of K562 cells and were inactive against the normal fibroblast Detroit 551. The selectivity index (SI) on K562 cell for 8 and 9 was >121.95 and >166.67, respectively, which is comparable to daunorubicin (SI=239) and is more favorable than camptothecin (SI=16.5). The cell cycle analysis on K562 indicated that these compounds arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. The morphological assessment and DNA fragmentation analysis indicated that 9-induced cell apoptosis in K562 cells. The apoptotic induction may through caspase-3 activity and cleavage of PARP.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 07/2010; 18(14):5172-82. · 2.82 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Molecular modeling studies carried out with experimental DNA models with the sequence d[AG(3)(T(2)AG(3))(3)] suggest that the introduction of a net positive charge onto the side chain of a series of fluorenone carboxamides can improve G-quadruplex binding. The terminal morpholino moiety was replaced with a novel N-methylmorpholinium cation starting from two 4-carboxamide compounds. A different substitution on the fluorenone ring was also investigated and submitted to the same quaternarization process. All compounds were analyzed for their DNA binding properties by competition dialysis methods. In vitro antiproliferative tests were carried out against two different tumor cell lines. Docking experiments were conducted by including all four known human repeat unit G-quadruplex DNA sequences (27 experimentally determined conformations) against the most active fluorenone derivatives. The results of theoretical, biophysical, and in vitro experiments indicate two novel derivatives as lead compounds for the development of a new generation of G-quadruplex ligands with greater potency and selectivity.ChemMedChem 02/2010; 5(4):575-83. · 2.84 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Structural multitude of nucleic acids serves basis for its multiple merits and applications. During structural transitions, significant to perform respective cellular functions, these DNA forms can vary from the single stranded to multi-stranded species. Hence, beyond the image of a monotonous DNA double-helix, there is now increasing interest in other polymorphic/ multi-stranded forms, the roles they may play in vivo and their potential use in therapeutics. Distinct guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences readily form a structurally diverse four-stranded architecture called G-quadruplexes. In addition to their presence at physical ends of chromosomes called telomeres, occurrence of these structural motifs in the upstream promoter regions of a number of genes, oncogenes and near transcription start sites, highlights that G-quadruplexes are involved in regulation of gene expression. Cancer cells typically possess shorter telomeres and have telomerase activity greatly exceeding that of normal cells. These differences create an opportunity to use anticancer therapies targeting telomerase and telomeres. The ability of small molecules to interact with and presumably stabilize G-quadruplex structures as a means of inhibiting telomerase has been a major drug design effort. Ligands, capable of interacting with four-stranded G-quadruplex have been generated. The discovery of proteins including transcription factors, recognizing G-quadruplexes, and conferring stabilization or unfolding them in biological systems, again makes G-quadruplexes, biologically pertinent structures. This review is an attempt to summarize the rapidly evolving literature exploring the amazing polymorphism of G-quadruplexes, and understanding their structure-specific-recognition and biological relevance, keeping in mind that G-tetraplexes are not only important drug targets, but may also act as gene regulatory elements. A pertinent detail of the challenges towards the rational design of structure-specific novel drugs has also been discussed.Current Molecular Medicine 12/2011; 11(9):744-69. · 4.20 Impact Factor