Human islets in mixed islet grafts protect mouse pancreatic beta-cells from alloxan toxicity.
ABSTRACT We have previously shown that human beta-cells are resistant to the toxic effects of alloxan. In order to further clarify this characteristic of human islets, we investigated whether these cells might transfer their alloxan resistance to alloxan-sensitive rat or mouse islets. Islets from two species (human-mouse or rat-mouse) were mixed into one graft, which was implanted into the subcapsular kidney space of nude mice. Alloxan or saline was injected intravenously two weeks after implantation and one week thereafter the mice were killed. The number of grafted and endogenous beta-cells were evaluated by a semi-quantitative method after immunohistochemistry. Human islet production of the scavenging enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase and plasma glutathione peroxidase were analyzed with ELISA-techniques, and mouse and human islet hydrogen peroxide breakdown activity were monitored with a horseradish peroxidase-dependent assay. Mouse beta-cells transplanted together with human islets were protected against alloxan cytotoxicity. Rat islets did not protect mouse beta-cells against alloxan, suggesting that the mixing procedure as such did not impose the protection. Production of extracellular superoxide dismutase and plasma glutathione peroxidase by human islets was very low. Moreover, H2O2 breakdown in vitro, did not differ between human and mouse islets. Alloxan-insensitive human islets protect mouse beta-cells against alloxan-induced lesions, suggesting that yet to be identified extracellular factors are involved in human islet resistance to alloxan toxicity.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to modulate the secretion of insulin and glucagon in Beagle dogs by stimulation of nerves innervating the intact and partly dysfunctional pancreas. Three 33-electrode spiral cuffs were implanted on the vagus, splanchnic and pancreatic nerves in each of two animals. Partial dysfunction of the pancreas was induced with alloxan. The nerves were stimulated using rectangular, charge-balanced, biphasic, and constant current pulses (200 micros, 1 mA, 20 Hz, with a 100-micros delay between biphasic phases). Blood samples from the femoral artery were drawn before the experiment, at the beginning of stimulation, after 5 min of stimulation, and 5 min after the end of stimulation. Radioimmunoassay data showed that in the intact pancreas stimulation of the vagal nerve increased insulin (+99.2 microU/ml) and glucagon (+18.7 pg/ml) secretion and decreased C-peptide secretion (-0.15 ng/ml). Splanchnic nerve stimulation increased insulin (+1.7 microU/ml), C-peptide (+0.01 ng/ml), and glucagon (+50 pg/ml) secretion, whereas pancreatic nerve stimulation did not cause a marked change in any of the three hormones. In the partly dysfunctional pancreas, vagus nerve stimulation increased insulin (+15.5 microU/ml), glucagon (+11 pg/ml), and C-peptide (+0.03 ng/ml) secretion. Splanchnic nerve stimulation reduced insulin secretion (-2.5 microU/ml) and increased glucagon (+58.7 pg/ml) and C-peptide (+0.39 ng/ml) secretion, and pancreatic nerve stimulation increased insulin (+0.2 microU/ml), glucagon (+5.2 pg/ml), and C-peptide (+0.08 ng/ml) secretion. It was concluded that vagal nerve stimulation can significantly increase insulin secretion for a prolonged period of time in intact and in partly dysfunctional pancreas.Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 04/2004; 37(3):363-70. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim was to measure the capillary blood pressure in transplanted human islets. Human islets were isolated at the Central Unit of the beta-cell Transplant in Brussels, Belgium. After transport to our laboratory, the islets were implanted under the renal capsule of normoglycemic nude mice. Two weeks later the capillary and venous blood pressures in the islet graft and adjacent renal parenchyma were measured with a micropuncture technique. Capillary blood pressure was approximately 5-8 mmHg in both graft and renal capillaries: twice as high as in native islets. Venous blood pressures were similar (4-5 mmHg) in the veins draining the graft and in the renal interlobular veins. All veins leading from the graft emptied into the renal parenchyma, that is, into interlobular veins. The capillary hypertension seen in transplanted human islets is probably necessary to secure adequate drainage through the renal veins. Whether this contributes to the poor results of long-term islet graft survival is unknown.Transplantation 09/2001; 72(4):730-2. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, or amylin) is one of the major secretory products of β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. It is a regulatory peptide with putative function both locally in the islets, where it inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion, and at distant targets. It has binding sites in the brain, possibly contributing also to satiety regulation and inhibits gastric emptying. Effects on several other organs have also been described. IAPP was discovered through its ability to aggregate into pancreatic islet amyloid deposits, which are seen particularly in association with type 2 diabetes in humans and with diabetes in a few other mammalian species, especially monkeys and cats. Aggregated IAPP has cytotoxic properties and is believed to be of critical importance for the loss of β-cells in type 2 diabetes and also in pancreatic islets transplanted into individuals with type 1 diabetes. This review deals both with physiological aspects of IAPP and with the pathophysiological role of aggregated forms of IAPP, including mechanisms whereby human IAPP forms toxic aggregates and amyloid fibrils.Physiological Reviews 07/2011; 91(3):795-826. · 29.04 Impact Factor