Sickness in pregnancy and sex of child
ABSTRACT We report a female predominance among the offspring of mothers with hyperemesis gravidarum.
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ABSTRACT: Disgust, an emotion triggering behavioral avoidance of pathogens, serves as a first line of defense against infections. Since behavior related to disgust involves some cost, the aversive reaction should be adjusted to the level of an individual's immunocompetence, and raise only when immunological function is lower (e.g. during pregnancy). We studied changes in disgust sensitivity in pregnant women, and tested if disgust sensitivity is related to a fetus's sex. 92 women participated in a three-stage research, answering the Disgust Scale-Revised questionnaire at each trimester of pregnancy. The result showed that total disgust and disgust sensitivity in the Core Domain were the highest in the first trimester (when maternal immunosuppression is also the highest), and decreased during pregnancy in women bearing daughters. Women bearing sons had relatively high disgust sensitivity persisting in the first and in the second trimester. The elevation in disgust sensitivity during the second trimester for mothers bearing male fetus can be explained by the necessity to protect for a longer time, a more ecologically sensitive fetus, and also herself when bearing a more energetically costly sex. The proximate mechanism may involve the differences in maternal testosterone and cortisol concentrations in the second trimester of pregnancy.Physiology & Behavior 11/2014; 139. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.11.032 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a condition causing severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy often resulting in hospital admission. The incidence of HG is approximately 0.5% of live births, said to be higher in multiple pregnancies, hydatidiform mole and other conditions associated with increased pregnancy hormone levels. Both the aetiology and pathogenesis of HG remain unknown. We conducted a literature review (1966-now) to summarize the current evidence on the aetiology and pathogenesis of HG. The potential role of pregnancy-related hormones such as progesterone, estrogen and HCG has been widely studied; however, various other hormones such as leptin, placental growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid and adrenal cortical hormones have been implicated in the aetiology of HG. In addition to endocrinological hypotheses, the rationale and evidence considering infectious, immunological, psychological, metabolic and anatomical causes for HG have been analysed here. Many studies suffer from the low number of patients included, the variable definition used for HG and varying assay methodology used in studies of hormone measurement. This review highlights the need for more extensive studies addressing the pathogenesis and aetiology of HG.Human Reproduction Update 01/2005; 11(5):527-39. DOI:10.1093/humupd/dmi021 · 8.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: . Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), a debilitating ailment charac-terized by severe nausea and vomiting, malnutrition, and weight loss during pregnancy, occurs to 1-2% of pregnant women globally. Although the medical community offers clinical and pharmaceutical intervention, the procedures are: (1) partially effective, if at all, (2) costly and unaffordable without health insurance, (3) questionable in their long-term safety for the fetus, as most have not been scientifically tested, and (4) in more severe cases, physically painful and psychologically disempowering for the preg-nant woman. This study unveils the deep suffering endured by women un-dergoing HG from a folkloristic perspective and proposes the use of medical cannabis as an effective natural remedy for the symptoms of HG. Due to the criminalization of cannabis and the stigma of its use during preg-nancy, no formalized testing has been conducted, thus far, to investigate such a claim. While a small, underground, pilot study of cannabis treat-ment for HG has proven relatively promising, clinical trials are necessary for a more conclusive answer.Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 06/2002; 24:63-83. DOI:10.1300/J175v02n03_05