Article

The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders.

University of California, Irvine 92717, USA.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.34). 01/2000; 29(6):439-84.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Child Neurology Society and American Academy of Neurology recently proposed to formulate Practice Parameters for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Autism for their memberships. This endeavor was expanded to include representatives from nine professional organizations and four parent organizations, with liaisons from the National Institutes of Health. This document was written by this multidisciplinary Consensus Panel after systematic analysis of over 2,500 relevant scientific articles in the literature. The Panel concluded that appropriate diagnosis of autism requires a dual-level approach: (a) routine developmental surveillance, and (b) diagnosis and evaluation of autism. Specific detailed recommendations for each level have been established in this document, which are intended to improve the rate of early suspicion and diagnosis of, and therefore early intervention for, autism.

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    • "7 - item checklist with a 0 ( no ) , 1 ( somewhat ) , or 2 ( yes ) scoring system for each item with a diagnostic cutoff score of 13 for autism spectrum disorder ( Ehlers , Gillberg , & Wing , 1999 ) . The ASAS is recommended as a screener for Asperger disorder , but has not yet been validated , and therefore does not have official cutoff scores ( Filipek et al . , 1999 ) . The scale consists of 24 items with a rating of 0 ( rarely ) to 6 ( frequently ) for each item which are added to obtain a total score . Data suggested that a cut - off score of 53 would serve well as a diagnostic criterion score for autism ( Meyer et al . , 2004 ) . At Time 2 , children and families were recruited to participate in"
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    • "The development of motor function in persons with ASD is not well understood. Although not usually considered core symptoms of ASD, a variety of unusual motor features are prevalent in this population and are thought to interfere with adaptive behavior (Leary and Hill, 1996; Filipek et al., 1999; Baranek et al., 2005; Mostofsky et al., 2006; Fournier et al., 2010). Estimates of prevalence of motor abnormalities in persons with ASD are upwards of 85% in some studies (Wing, 1981; Miyahara et al., 1997; Provost et al., 2007; Green et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other developmental disabilities (DD), and (3) to determine the association between motor coordination variables and functional fine motor skills. Twenty-four children with ASD were compared to 30 children with typical development (TD) and 11 children with DD. A precision grip task was used to quantify and analyze motor coordination. The motor coordination variables were two temporal variables (grip to load force onset latency and time to peak grip force) and two force variables (grip force at onset of load force and peak grip force). Functional motor skills were assessed using the Fine Motor Age Equivalents of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Mixed regression models were used for all analyses. Children with ASD presented with significant motor coordination deficits only on the two temporal variables, and these variables differentiated children with ASD from the children with TD, but not from children with DD. Fine motor functional skills had no statistically significant associations with any of the motor coordination variables. These findings suggest that subtle problems in the timing of motor actions, possibly related to maturational delays in anticipatory feed-forward mechanisms, may underlie some motor deficits reported in children with ASD, but that these issues are not unique to this population. Further research is needed to investigate how children with ASD or DD compensate for motor control deficits to establish functional skills.
    Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 12/2012; 6:122. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2012.00122
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    • "Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of disorders associated with intercommunication and interrelation abilities that lead to impaired cognitive and emotional development [1] [2]. Furthermore, functions of higher brain networks, such as theory of mind, central coherence, and executive functions are deficient to varying extents [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Working memory (WM) performance is considered to change according to the nature of the task by adequate and prompt activation of corresponding functional connectivity in the brain. In the present study, we examined continuous prefrontal hemodynamic changes depending on reciprocal disposition of WM and non-WM tasks using two-channel near-infrared spec-troscopy. To investigate possible functional connectivity deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during these tasks, relative concentration changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (Hb), deoxygenated Hb, and total Hb were compared between high-func-tioning ASD subjects (n = 11) and controls (n = 22). Instant evoked cerebral blood oxygenation changes were observed in re-sponse to the task switch in controls but not in ASD subjects, although the task performance rate was almost equivalent. Delayed or altered response of functional connectivity to incoming stimuli is considered a characteristic feature of ASD.
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