The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders

University of California, Irvine 92717, USA.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.34). 01/2000; 29(6):439-84.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Child Neurology Society and American Academy of Neurology recently proposed to formulate Practice Parameters for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Autism for their memberships. This endeavor was expanded to include representatives from nine professional organizations and four parent organizations, with liaisons from the National Institutes of Health. This document was written by this multidisciplinary Consensus Panel after systematic analysis of over 2,500 relevant scientific articles in the literature. The Panel concluded that appropriate diagnosis of autism requires a dual-level approach: (a) routine developmental surveillance, and (b) diagnosis and evaluation of autism. Specific detailed recommendations for each level have been established in this document, which are intended to improve the rate of early suspicion and diagnosis of, and therefore early intervention for, autism.

Download full-text


Available from: Isabelle Rapin, Sep 28, 2015
70 Reads
  • Source
    • "Another important aspect of those with any ASD diagnosis is that a significant number of children diagnosed with an ASD experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills.[67] Many parents report that their child was developmentally normal until sometime after birth, typically 15-24 months, at which time the child began to regress or deteriorate.[89101112] The reported incidence of regression in autism varies in different studies from 15 to 62% of the cases.[671314] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research indicates that some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience a developmental regression. The study examined the percentage of children with autism, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), ASD, and Asperger syndrome (AS) who were considered to be delayed (D), regressed (R), or delayed and later regressed (DR) and examined any relationship with autism severity, time of onset, factors associated with onset, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, race, age, and gender. The study reviewed developmental and medical information based on parental reports of 135 children with a diagnosis of autism, PDD, ASD, or AS. The number of children in the D group was 53 (39.2%) with 19 (14.1%) in the DR group and 63 (46.7%) in the R group. Thus, 82 children (60.7%) were reported to have R. In regard to onset of symptoms, there was a significant difference between the D and R groups as well as between the DR and R groups. The analyses showed that there was no significant relationship between age, gender, race, severity, or GI symptoms and membership in any group; D, DR, or R. The majority of parents reported that the regression was preceded by or was associated with vaccinations (57.3%) or another medically related event (11.0%). The findings are consistent with previous research and reinforce our understanding of regression in those children with an ASD diagnosis.
    North American Journal of Medical Sciences 01/2014; 6(1):41-7. DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.125867
  • Source
    • "The prevalence of autism in children is approaching 1%, or approximately 1 in 110 children [2]. Although autism can be diagnosed as young as 18 months of age [3], the symptoms of this disorder last throughout an individual's lifetime. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods: Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results: All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions: Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs.
    The Scientific World Journal 11/2013; 2013(ss-10):716890. DOI:10.1155/2013/716890 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Although it was repeatedly emphasized that the supposed qualitative diagnostic segregation can be judged by an experienced clinician [5, 21], there is no evidence that any aspect of the autistic phenotype is qualitatively distinct from normal development. The term “qualitative” was used in the categorical approach to illustrate the range of impairments [19] on the assumption that the autistic behavioral range is qualitatively distinguishable from the normal range. Many population studies challenged this assumption and revealed that ASD is best characterized as an extreme of a bell-shaped behavioral dimension that distribute quantitatively from normal development to autistic development [22–31]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), autistic characteristics in social interaction and communication are described as qualitative impairments. However, the difference between autistics and nonautistics in the draft of the 5th edition (DSM-5 draft) is quantitative rather than qualitative. The word "qualitative" is deleted in the draft text, and it is specified that the relation between social demands and individual limited capacities is critical for symptom manifestation (criterion C). Because the proposed levels of support requirement in the draft are mere observable outcomes of social vulnerability, the boundary between level 1 and nonautistic condition is determined by the relation between social demands and individual capacities. In addition to the introduction of the single category (autism spectrum disorder (ASD)) to cover the entire case spectrum, the DSM-5 draft is clearly based on a conviction that ASD is indistinguishable from the normal behavioral range. This concise review provides an explanation for this implicit paradigm shift from qualitative to quantitative. Importantly, the conditional role of social demands for symptom manifestation in the draft can be plausibly interpreted using a unique liability-probability model.
    05/2013; 2013(9):201719. DOI:10.1155/2013/201719
Show more