The effect of mini-dose aspirin on renal function and uric acid handling in elderly patients

Tel Aviv University, Israel.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.76). 01/2000; 43(1):103-8. DOI: 10.1002/1529-0131(200001)43:1<103::AID-ANR13>3.0.CO;2-C
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aspirin is known to have a bimodal effect on the renal handling of uric acid (UA). High dosages (>3 gm/day) are uricosuric, while low dosages (1-2 gm/day) cause UA retention. Although very-low-dose (mini-dose) aspirin is used increasingly as a platelet aggregation inhibitor, no studies have been published on whether aspirin's renal effects occur at dosages of <0.5 gm/day. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of commonly used mini-dosages of aspirin on renal function and UA handling in elderly patients.
The study included 49 elderly inpatients (age 61-94). Patients were excluded if they had renal failure, hyperuricemia, gout, or a history of bleeding, or if they were receiving anticoagulants, aspirin, or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Previous medications and diet were kept unchanged. Aspirin was administered as follows: 75 mg/day (week 1), 150 mg/day (week 2), 325 mg/day (week 3), and 0 mg/day (week 4). Baseline and weekly samples of blood and urine were evaluated for UA, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, UA excretion, UA clearance, and plasma levels of aspirin.
At the lowest dosage, aspirin caused a 15% decrease in the rate of UA excretion (P = 0.045 by t-test), which was associated with a slight but significant increase in serum levels of UA (P = 0.009). These effects on UA levels were gradually reduced with increasing dosages of aspirin (multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures showed no statistically significant difference in the rate of UA excretion between weeks 1-3 and week 0 [baseline], but the difference in serum UA levels for the same comparison was statistically significant [P = 0.038]). Generally, creatinine and UA clearance rates paralleled each other during aspirin treatment. However, 1 week after aspirin was discontinued, creatinine clearance remained decreased while UA clearance returned to baseline. Plasma aspirin concentrations were low and variable. However, patients with above-median aspirin levels had significantly greater changes in serum creatinine levels, urinary UA excretion rates, and UA clearance rates following the first week of aspirin treatment. Hypoalbuminemia and concomitant treatment with diuretics enhanced the effects of aspirin on renal function and UA retention.
Mini-dose aspirin, even at a dosage of 75 mg/day, caused significant changes in renal function and UA handling within 1 week in a group of elderly inpatients, mainly in those with preexisting hypoalbuminemia. Given the widespread (and often unmonitored) use of mini-dose aspirin, especially among the elderly, these findings call for clinician alertness as well as for further studies to clarify the mechanisms underlying these phenomena.

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    • "Since these processes can independently be modulated with exogenous substances, the overall action of a drug is frequently biphasic. Aspirin at dosages of >3 g/day promotes uricosuria by inhibition of the reabsorption while lower dosages (1-2 g/day) may cause uric acid retention, presumably by interfering with the tubular secretion [32]. This, together with the chemical complexity of the fractions, could provide a simple explanation for the unclear dose-response relationships observed in certain cases; several interactions between various constituents of the fractions might take place, in which the active components would influence these renal functions differently. "
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    ABSTRACT: The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other's important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide) were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2013; 2013(3):948627. DOI:10.1155/2013/948627 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Recently, Keenan et al. [37] have documented high rates of inappropriate prescribing patterns of gout medications related to contraindicated concomitant medications for other comorbidities. Even cardioprotective use of low-dose aspirin (75-325 mg/day) can impair renal function and uric acid handling in elderly patients [38]. In elderly patients on thiazide diuretics, which increase the net reabsorption of uric acid in the proximal tubule of the nephron [39], the adjusted relative risk for the onset of gout, as documented by initiation of anti-gout therapy, was 1.99 (95% CI 1.21-3.26) "
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of gout rises with increasing age. Management of elderly (≥65 years) gout patients can be challenging due to high rates of comorbidities, such as renal impairment and cardiovascular disease, and concomitant medication use. However, there is little data specifically addressing the efficacy and safety of available urate-lowering therapies (ULT) in the elderly. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to examine the efficacy and safety of ULT with febuxostat or allopurinol in a subset of elderly subjects enrolled in the CONFIRMS trial. Hyperuricemic (serum urate [sUA] levels ≥ 8.0 mg/dL) gout subjects were enrolled in the 6-month, double-blind, randomized, comparative CONFIRMS trial and randomized, 1:1:1, to receive febuxostat, 40 mg or 80 mg, or allopurinol (200 mg or 300 mg based on renal function) once daily. Flare prophylaxis was provided throughout the study duration.Study endpoints were the percent of elderly subjects with sUA <6.0 mg/dL at the final visit, overall and by renal function status, percent change in sUA from baseline to final visit, flare rates, and rates of adverse events (AEs). Of 2,269 subjects enrolled, 374 were elderly. Febuxostat 80 mg was significantly more efficacious (82.0%) than febuxostat 40 mg (61.7%; p < 0.001) or allopurinol (47.3%; p < 0.001) for achieving the primary efficacy endpoint. Febuxostat 40 mg was also superior to allopurinol in this population (p = 0.029). In subjects with mild-to-moderate renal impairment, significantly greater ULT efficacy was observed with febuxostat 40 mg (61.6%; p = 0.028) and febuxostat 80 mg (82.5%; p < 0.001) compared to allopurinol 200/300 mg (46.9%). Compared to allopurinol 200/300 mg, the mean percent change in sUA from baseline was significantly greater for both febuxostat 80 mg (p < 0.001) and febuxostat 40 mg (p = 0.011) groups. Flare rates declined steadily in all treatment groups. Rates of AEs were low and comparable across treatments. These data suggest that either dose of febuxostat is superior to commonly prescribed fixed doses of allopurinol (200/300 mg) in subjects ≥65 years of age with high rates of renal dysfunction. In addition, in this high-risk population, ULT with either drug was well tolerated. NCT#00430248.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The adverse effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and diuretics when given together need extensive research and attention. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients admitted to the internal department of a general medical hospital to investigate the effect of drug combinations on serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance upon admission. Results: age, sex, disease status and prior consumption of the 'target' drugs: diuretics and ACE-I were correlated with creatinine and creatinine clearance on admission. The levels of serum creatinine for groups receiving the target combination in both sexes were significantly higher than groups who were not receiving the target combination. Computing an estimate of creatinine clearance based on Cockroft equation yields similar results to that for serum level creatinine. The levels of creatinine clearance in both sexes were significantly higher in the control group compared to those receiving the target combinations. Low dose aspirin seems to have a synergistic negative effect on renal function when given in combination with the target medications. Conclusion: taking ACE-I/diuretic combination was associated with significant changes in creatinine levels and creatinine clearance. Attention should be made to balance positive effects of these medications against their negative effect on renal function.
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