Morningness/Eveningness and the need for sleep

Clinique du Sommeil, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Bordeaux, France.
Journal of Sleep Research (Impact Factor: 3.35). 01/2000; 8(4):291-5. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2869.1999.00176.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine, in a large sample of adults of all ages (17-80 years), the effect of morningness/eveningness on sleep/wake schedules, sleep needs, sleep hygiene and subjective daytime somnolence. A total of 617 subjects (219 subjects per chronotype group) matched for age, sex and employment status, completed an abridged morningness/eveningness questionnaire, a questionnaire on sleep habits and the quality of sleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eveningness was associated with a greater need for sleep, less time in bed during the week compared to ideal sleep needs, more time in bed at the weekend, a later bedtime and waking-up time especially at the weekend, more irregular sleep/wake habits and greater caffeine consumption. These subjects built up a sleep debt during the week and extended their duration of sleep at the weekend. They did not, however, rate themselves more sleepy than other types, despite the fact that our results showed a clear link between subjectively evaluated daytime somnolence and sleep debt. Why they were less affected by sleep deprivation is not clear. This raises the question of individual susceptibility to the modification of sleep parameters.

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Available from: Jacques Taillard, Jan 16, 2015
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    • "Score ranges from 16 to 86, with higher scores indicating greater morningness tendencies (Morning Type or MT) and lower scores indicating greater eveningness tendencies (Evening Type or ET). Previous studies have shown that chronotype is significantly associated with age (Taillard et al., 1999; Roenneberg et al., 2007). Thus, scores can be divided into three categories according to age (Horne and Ostberg, 1976; Taillard et al., 2004): – Morning Type: scores Z 59 for subjects o45 years old, and scores Z 65 for subjects Z45 years old. "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that Evening-Type (ET) subjects used more stimulating and sedative substances, and presented more psychiatric disorders than Morning-Type (MT) subject. However, there is a lack of data on the chronotype of patients with addiction. The aim of our study was to describe chronotype and associated factors in a sample of outpatients beginning treatment for addiction. Subjects were assessed with the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire of Hörne & Ostberg, the Addiction Severity Index and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. In the 333 subjects with an addiction, 20% were MT and 32% were ET. When comparing ET to MT, multivariate analysis showed that ET was significantly associated with poly-problematic addiction, non-substance addictions, cannabis addiction, and mood disorders, but not with severity of addiction. MT was associated with antisocial personality disorder. Results suggested that chronotype was associated with specific addiction pattern and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research 05/2015; 229(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.026 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "We found that the morning type group had higher TST ( " main episode " and " 24 h " ) than the other groups and were also more common among those who slept more than six hours per day. These data corroborate the study by Taillard and colleagues [29], which showed that evening type subjects had shorter time in bed and increased need for sleep. We suggest that evening type individuals could experience consequences associated with chronic sleep deprivation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m2, and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences.
    Sleep Science 09/2014; 164(3). DOI:10.1016/j.slsci.2014.09.012
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    • "In particular, evening chronotypes frequently accumulate sleep debt on work days due to sleep interruption caused by social restrictions such as work, school, and childrearing. As a compensatory mechanism, evening chronotypes tends to extend their sleep time on free days (Ishihara et al., 1987; Park et al., 1997; Taillard et al., 1999). When sleep is extended in this way (i.e. to catch up on sleep), waking time is delayed much more than bedtime is. "
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    ABSTRACT: To assess circadian preference with a score, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) has been used for more than 3 decades now. More recently, the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) was developed: it asks for sleep-wake behavior on work and free days and uses the midpoint of sleep on free days (MSF), corrected for sleep debt accumulated during the work week as an indicator of chronotype (MSFsc). In this study, we developed a Japanese version of the MCTQ by using a translation/back-translation approach including an examination of its semantic validity. In a subsequent questionnaire survey, 450 adult men and women completed the Japanese versions of the MCTQ and MEQ. Results showed that MEQ scores were significantly negatively correlated with mid-sleep parameters assessed by the MCTQ, on both, work and free days, as well as with the chronotype measure MSFsc (r = -0.580 to -0.652, all p < 0.001). As in the original German version, the strongest correlation was observed between MEQ score and MSF. A physiological validation study using dim light melatonin onset as a circadian phase marker (N = 37) showed a high correlation between chronotype as assessed with the MSFsc (r = 0.542, p < 0.001), and less so for MEQ score (r = -0.402, p = 0.055). These results demonstrate the validity of the Japanese MCTQ and provide further support of the adequacy of the MCTQ as a chronotype measure.
    Chronobiology International 05/2014; 31(7):1-6. DOI:10.3109/07420528.2014.914035 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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