Morningness/Eveningness and the need for sleep

Clinique du Sommeil, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Bordeaux, France.
Journal of Sleep Research (Impact Factor: 3.35). 01/2000; 8(4):291-5. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2869.1999.00176.x
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to determine, in a large sample of adults of all ages (17-80 years), the effect of morningness/eveningness on sleep/wake schedules, sleep needs, sleep hygiene and subjective daytime somnolence. A total of 617 subjects (219 subjects per chronotype group) matched for age, sex and employment status, completed an abridged morningness/eveningness questionnaire, a questionnaire on sleep habits and the quality of sleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eveningness was associated with a greater need for sleep, less time in bed during the week compared to ideal sleep needs, more time in bed at the weekend, a later bedtime and waking-up time especially at the weekend, more irregular sleep/wake habits and greater caffeine consumption. These subjects built up a sleep debt during the week and extended their duration of sleep at the weekend. They did not, however, rate themselves more sleepy than other types, despite the fact that our results showed a clear link between subjectively evaluated daytime somnolence and sleep debt. Why they were less affected by sleep deprivation is not clear. This raises the question of individual susceptibility to the modification of sleep parameters.

Download full-text


Available from: Jacques Taillard, Jan 16, 2015
    • "In the original study by Horne and Ostberg (1976, 1977), of the 48 probands, 18 were morning types, 10 intermediate types and 20 evening types. When the MEQ is applied to larger population samples, morningness–eveningness appears in a dimensional manner following a normal distribution (Griefahn et al., 2001; Paine et al., 2006; Park et al., 1997; Taillard et al., 1999). The phenotypical chronotype shows high stability over time (Griefahn et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2014) and is to a great amount genetically determined (Barclay et al., 2013; Hida et al., 2014; Toomey et al., 2015; von Schantz et al., 2015). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The individual's chronotype is regarded as rather stable trait with substantial heritability and normal distribution of the "morningness-eveningness" dimension in the general population. Eveningness has been related to the risk of developing affective, particularly depressive, disorders. However, age and other sociobiological factors may influence chronotypes. The present study investigated the distribution, stability, and clinical correlates of chronotype and morningness-eveningness in hospitalized patients with affective disorder. Chronotype was assessed with the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) in 93 patients with nonseasonal depressive syndrome (85% major depression; 15% depressive adjustment disorder) after admission, and in 19 patients again before discharge. Distribution, stability and correlations of MEQ scores with clinical variables were calculated. Additionally, a literature analysis of chronotype distributions in samples of nondepressed persons and patients with nonseasonal depression was carried out. MEQ scores (mean 49 ± 11, range 23-75, higher scores indicate morningness) in 93 acutely depressed inpatients (age 41 ± 14 years, range 18-75 years; 63% women; hospitalization 48 ± 22 days; BDI-II 32 ± 11) were normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilk test; W = 0.993, p = 0.920) with 59.1% intermediate types, 19.4% evening types, and 21.5% morning types. MEQ change scores from admission to discharge were nonsignificant (-1.3 ± 5.0; paired t-test, t18 = -1.09; p = 0.29) despite significantly improved depression scores (-19.4 ± 7.6; paired t-test, t18 = 11.2, p < 0.001). Age (r = 0.24), and depression scores (r = -0.21) correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with MEQ scores; associations with sex and hospitalization duration were nonsignificant. The present study and literature findings revealed that the frequency of evening types is not clearly elevated in depression, but morning types are less frequent compared to healthy samples (p < 0.001). Morningness-eveningness scores were normally distributed and stable in depressive inpatients. In line with previous findings, but contrary to theoretical assumptions, evening types were not overrepresented in depressed patients. Additionally, relatively less morning types and more intermediate types were found in depressed patients. Future studies should focus on transitions from morning to intermediate types as a tentative risk or correlate of emerging depression.
    Chronobiology International 11/2015; DOI:10.3109/07420528.2015.1091353 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Such variability in sleep–wake patterns is especially evident among evening-types who generally report a higher accumulated sleep debt during the week (Roenneberg et al., 2003). In fact, Taillard et al. (1999) found that up to 72.5% of evening types modified their bedtimes and wake times by at least 2 h between the workweek and the weekend, compared to 49.8% of morning-types. A number of researchers have proposed that social jetlag may be an important factor to consider when examining the link between morningness–eveningness and psychosocial adjustment (Levandovski et al., 2011; Roeser et al., 2013; Wittmann et al., 2006, 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Past research has consistently found that evening-types typically report poorer academic adjustment and higher levels of substance use compared to morning-types. An important development within the morningness-eveningness and psychosocial adjustment literature has been the hypothesis that social jetlag (i.e. the asynchrony between an individual's "biological" and "social" clocks) is one factor that may explain why evening-types are at a greater risk for negative psychosocial adjustment. Yet, only a handful of studies have assessed social jetlag. Furthermore, the few studies that have assessed social jetlag have done so only with concurrent data, and thus have not been able to determine the direction of effects among morningness-eveningness, social jetlag and psychosocial adjustment. To address this important gap in the literature, the present 3-year longitudinal study employed the use of a cross-lagged auto-regressive model to specifically examine the predictive role of perceived morningness-eveningness and social jetlag on two important indices of psychosocial adjustment among university students: academic adjustment and substance use. We also assessed whether there would be an indirect effect between perceived morningness-eveningness and psychosocial adjustment through social jetlag. Participants were 942 (71.5% female; M = 19 years, SD = 0.90) undergraduates at a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada, who completed a survey at three assessments, each one year apart, beginning in first-year university. Measures were demographics (age, gender and parental education), sleep problems, perceived morningness-eveningness, social jetlag, academic adjustment and substance use. As hypothesized, results of path analyses indicated that a greater perceived eveningness preference significantly predicted higher social jetlag, poorer academic adjustment and higher substance use over time. In contrast, we found no support for social jetlag as a predictor of academic adjustment and substance use, indicating that social jetlag did not explain the link between perceived morningness-eveningness and negative psychosocial adjustment. An important finding was the significant predictive effect of higher substance use on social jetlag over time. Results of the present study highlight the importance of employing a longitudinal framework within which to specifically determine the direction of effects among the study variables in order to validate proposed theoretical models that aim to guide our understanding of how perceived morningness-eveningness, social jetlag, academic adjustment and substance use relate to each other.
    Chronobiology International 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/07420528.2015.1085062 · 3.34 Impact Factor
    • "Score ranges from 16 to 86, with higher scores indicating greater morningness tendencies (Morning Type or MT) and lower scores indicating greater eveningness tendencies (Evening Type or ET). Previous studies have shown that chronotype is significantly associated with age (Taillard et al., 1999; Roenneberg et al., 2007). Thus, scores can be divided into three categories according to age (Horne and Ostberg, 1976; Taillard et al., 2004): – Morning Type: scores Z59 for subjects o 45 years old, and scores Z 65 for subjects Z45 years old. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that Evening-Type (ET) subjects used more stimulating and sedative substances, and presented more psychiatric disorders than Morning-Type (MT) subject. However, there is a lack of data on the chronotype of patients with addiction. The aim of our study was to describe chronotype and associated factors in a sample of outpatients beginning treatment for addiction. Subjects were assessed with the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire of Hörne & Ostberg, the Addiction Severity Index and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. In the 333 subjects with an addiction, 20% were MT and 32% were ET. When comparing ET to MT, multivariate analysis showed that ET was significantly associated with poly-problematic addiction, non-substance addictions, cannabis addiction, and mood disorders, but not with severity of addiction. MT was associated with antisocial personality disorder. Results suggested that chronotype was associated with specific addiction pattern and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research 05/2015; 229(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.026 · 2.47 Impact Factor
Show more