Zinc deficiency exacerbates loss in blood-brain barrier integrity induced by hyperoxia measured by dynamic MRI.
ABSTRACT Using dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI), blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability (k(PSrho)) and tissue interstitial leakage space (v(e)) were evaluated in zinc-deficient (ZnDF) male weanling Wistar rats following 3 days exposure to hyperoxia (85% O2). Temporal monitoring of T1-weighted MR image changes, following a bolus intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA, allowed estimation of BBB integrity. Three-day exposure of hyperoxia caused a marginal loss of BBB integrity, reflected in a slight increase in kPSrho and v(e), observed in both the animals fed adequate zinc (ZnAL) and pair-fed controls (ZnPF). However, zinc deficiency resulted in a significant increase in both kPSrho and v(e), indicating a severely disturbed BBB. In addition MR-visible free water was elevated in ZnDF brains following hyperoxia treatment indicating that a loss of BBB integrity may be associated with neuronal edema. The diminished BBB integrity may be free-radical mediated as the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) was significantly elevated.
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ABSTRACT: Depression is considered as a chronic and recurring illness with functional impairment, significant disability, morbidity and mortality. Despite the extensive research carried out on depression, its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. An important problem concerning research into depressive disorder is the lack of biological markers which could improve diagnosis or indicate a risk of developing depression or risk of relapse. Several reports indicated decreased zinc concentrations and even its deficit in clinical depression, so the measurement of the concentration of this element in the blood of patients was suggested as a useful and specific clinical marker of depression. The reported results indicated that the serum zinc level might be a marker of depression as a state (state marker) in treatment responsive patients. However, in drug-resistant depression a decreased concentration of zinc may be a marker of traits (trait marker). It seems, however, that the measurement of the concentrations of zinc might be in the future a component of the battery of tests; of markers of immune activation and oxidative stress rather than itself alone.Pharmacological reports: PR 11/2013; 65(6):1512-1518. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human milk (HM) is recognized as the optimal form of nutrition in the newborn period, providing nutrients and a variety of components (minerals, vitamins, enzymes, hormones, growth factors, and immunoglobulins) that are very important for growth and healthy development. In the case of premature (PM) infants, functional and in certain cases, structural development of most organ systems is completed in the weeks following birth. PM infants do not get enough oxygen and may require supplemental oxygen as high as 95%. This high level of inspired oxygen necessary to maintain arterial oxygen tension exposes these infants to more reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared with full term infants. ROS may lead to diseases associated with prematurity, including necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular-periventricular hemorrhage, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There is then a need to reduce oxidative stress or boost antioxidant defenses in these vulnerable infants. Data suggest that HM has unique antioxidant properties that will assist the premature infant in coping with the increased oxidative stress. HM antioxidant components include the enzymes superoxide dismutase for dismutation of superoxide anion, catalase for degradation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2), glutathione peroxidase for destruction of H 2 O 2 and organic peroxides. Human milk contains other molecules including cysteine, vitamins C and E, which are scavengers of oxygen radicals.Current Pediatric Reviews 01/2007; 300.
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ABSTRACT: There is increasing recognition of the importance of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in aging, dementia, stroke and multiple sclerosis in addition to more commonly-studied pathologies such as tumors. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is a method for studying BBB disruption in vivo. We review pathologies studied, scanning protocols and data analysis procedures to determine the range of available methods and their suitability to different pathologies. We systematically review the existing literature up to February 2014, seeking studies that assessed BBB integrity using T1-weighted DCE-MRI techniques in animals and humans in normal or abnormal brain tissues. The literature search provided 70 studies that were eligible for inclusion, involving 417 animals and 1564 human subjects in total. The pathologies most studied are intracranial neoplasms and acute ischemic strokes. There are large variations in the type of DCE-MRI sequence, the imaging protocols and the contrast agents used. Moreover, studies use a variety of different methods for data analysis, mainly based on model-free measurements and on the Patlak and Tofts models. Consequently, estimated KTrans values varied widely. In conclusion, DCE-MRI is shown to provide valuable information in a large variety of applications, ranging from common applications, such as grading of primary brain tumors, to more recent applications, such as assessment of subtle BBB dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease. Further research is required in order to establish consensus-based recommendations for data acquisition and analysis and, hence, improve inter-study comparability and promote wider use of DCE-MRI.NeuroImage: Clinical. 01/2014;