The role of zinc in wound healing.
ABSTRACT Zinc deficiency has been associated with delayed wound healing. Because zinc deficiency may be common in the United States, foods rich in zinc, as well as all other essential nutrients, should be promoted in the diet of patients who are malnourished or at risk for malnutrition.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced alimentary mucositis is an extremely common condition that is caused by a breakdown of the mucosal barrier. It occurs in between 40 - 100% of cancer patients depending on the treatment regimen. Symptoms typically include pain from oral ulceration, vomiting and diarrhoea. Alimentary mucositis often necessitates chemotherapy reductions or treatment breaks, overall potentially compromising survival outcomes. Consequently, alimentary mucositis creates a burden not only on patients' quality of life but also on healthcare costs. Despite this, currently, there is no clinically effective localised/pharmacological therapy intervention strategy to prevent alimentary mucositis. Areas covered: Over recent years, a number of novel pharmacotherapy agents have been trialed in various preclinical and clinical settings. This critical review will therefore provide an overview of emerging pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alimentary mucositis following chemotherapy with particular emphasis on studies published in the last 2 years. A Pubmed literature search was conducted to identify eligible articles published before 30 November 2013 and each article was reviewed by all authors. All articles were written in English. Expert opinion: Currently, there is no clinically effective localised therapeutic intervention strategy to prevent the condition. New emerging areas of research have recently been proposed to play key roles in the development of alimentary mucositis and these areas may provide researchers and clinicians with new research directions. Hopefully this will continue, and evidence-based informed guidelines can be produced to improve clinical practice management of this condition.Expert opinion on biological therapy 01/2014; DOI:10.1517/14712598.2014.874412 · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A systematic analysis of results available from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials on the effects of biocompatible CaP coatings is presented. An overview of the most frequently used methods to prepare CaP-based coatings was conducted. Dense, homogeneous, highly adherent, and biocompatible CaP or hybrid organic/inorganic CaP coatings with tailored properties can be deposited. It has been demonstrated that CaP coatings have a significant effect on the bone regeneration process. In vitro experiments using different cells (e.g. SaOs2, hMSCs, and osteoblast-like cells) have revealed that CaP coatings enhance cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation to promote bone regeneration. However, in vivo, the exact mechanism of osteogenesis in response to CaP coatings is unclear, indeed there are conflicting reports of the effectiveness of CaP coatings with results ranging from highly effective to no significant or even negative effects. This review will therefore highlight progress in CaP coatings for orthopaedic implants and discuss the future research and use of these devices. Currently, an exciting area of research is in bioactive hybrid composite CaP-based coatings containing both inorganic (CaP coating) and organic (collagen, BMPs, RGD etc.) components with the aim of promoting tissue ingrowth and vascularisation. Further investigations are necessary to reveal the relative influences of implant design, surgical procedure, and coating characteristics (thickness, structure, topography, porosity, wettability etc) on the long-term clinical effects of hybrid CaP coatings. In addition to commercially available plasma spraying, other effective routes for the fabrication of hybrid CaP coatings for clinical use still need to be determined and current progress is discussed.Acta biomaterialia 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2013.10.036 · 5.68 Impact Factor
Article: Zinc: The Metal of Life[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The importance of zinc was 1st reported for Aspergillus niger. It took over 75 y to realize that zinc is also an essential trace element for rats, and an additional 30 y went by before it was recognized that this was also true for humans. The adult body contains about 2 to 3 g of zinc. Zinc is found in organs, tissues, bones, fluids, and cells. It is essential for many physiological functions and plays a significant role in a number of enzyme actions in the living systems. Bioinformatics estimates report that 10% of the human proteome contains zinc-binding sites. Based on its role in such a plethora of cellular components, zinc has diverse biological functions from enzymatic catalysis to playing a crucial role in cellular neuronal systems. Thus, based on the various published studies and reports, it is pertinent to state that zinc is one of the most important essential trace metals in human nutrition and lifestyle. Its deficiency may severely affect the homeostasis of a biological system. This review compiles the role of zinc in prophylaxis/therapeutics and provides current information about its effect on living beings.Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 07/2014; 13(4). DOI:10.1111/1541-4337.12067 · 3.54 Impact Factor