The role of zinc in wound healing.
ABSTRACT Zinc deficiency has been associated with delayed wound healing. Because zinc deficiency may be common in the United States, foods rich in zinc, as well as all other essential nutrients, should be promoted in the diet of patients who are malnourished or at risk for malnutrition.
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ABSTRACT: A systematic analysis of results available from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials on the effects of biocompatible CaP coatings is presented. An overview of the most frequently used methods to prepare CaP-based coatings was conducted. Dense, homogeneous, highly adherent, and biocompatible CaP or hybrid organic/inorganic CaP coatings with tailored properties can be deposited. It has been demonstrated that CaP coatings have a significant effect on the bone regeneration process. In vitro experiments using different cells (e.g. SaOs2, hMSCs, and osteoblast-like cells) have revealed that CaP coatings enhance cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation to promote bone regeneration. However, in vivo, the exact mechanism of osteogenesis in response to CaP coatings is unclear, indeed there are conflicting reports of the effectiveness of CaP coatings with results ranging from highly effective to no significant or even negative effects. This review will therefore highlight progress in CaP coatings for orthopaedic implants and discuss the future research and use of these devices. Currently, an exciting area of research is in bioactive hybrid composite CaP-based coatings containing both inorganic (CaP coating) and organic (collagen, BMPs, RGD etc.) components with the aim of promoting tissue ingrowth and vascularisation. Further investigations are necessary to reveal the relative influences of implant design, surgical procedure, and coating characteristics (thickness, structure, topography, porosity, wettability etc) on the long-term clinical effects of hybrid CaP coatings. In addition to commercially available plasma spraying, other effective routes for the fabrication of hybrid CaP coatings for clinical use still need to be determined and current progress is discussed.Acta biomaterialia 11/2013; · 5.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Zinc was selected as a priority micronutrient for EURRECA, because there is significant heterogeneity in the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) across Europe. In addition, the prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was thought to be high among all population groups worldwide, and the public health concern is considerable. In accordance with the EURRECA consortium principles and protocols, a series of literature reviews were undertaken in order to develop best practice guidelines for assessing dietary zinc intake and zinc status. These were incorporated into subsequent literature search strategies and protocols for studies investigating the relationships between zinc intake, status and health, as well as studies relating to the factorial approach (including bioavailability) for setting dietary recommendations. EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library CENTRAL, and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were searched for studies published up to February 2010 and collated into a series of Endnote databases that are available for the use of future DRV panels. Meta-analyses of data extracted from these publications were performed where possible in order to address specific questions relating to factors affecting dietary recommendations. This review has highlighted the need for more high quality studies to address gaps in current knowledge, in particular the continued search for a reliable biomarker of zinc status and the influence of genetic polymorphisms on individual dietary requirements. In addition, there is a need to further develop models of the effect of dietary inhibitors of zinc absorption and their impact on population dietary zinc requirements.Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 01/2013; 53(10):1110-23. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced alimentary mucositis is an extremely common condition that is caused by a breakdown of the mucosal barrier. It occurs in between 40 - 100% of cancer patients depending on the treatment regimen. Symptoms typically include pain from oral ulceration, vomiting and diarrhoea. Alimentary mucositis often necessitates chemotherapy reductions or treatment breaks, overall potentially compromising survival outcomes. Consequently, alimentary mucositis creates a burden not only on patients' quality of life but also on healthcare costs. Despite this, currently, there is no clinically effective localised/pharmacological therapy intervention strategy to prevent alimentary mucositis. Areas covered: Over recent years, a number of novel pharmacotherapy agents have been trialed in various preclinical and clinical settings. This critical review will therefore provide an overview of emerging pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alimentary mucositis following chemotherapy with particular emphasis on studies published in the last 2 years. A Pubmed literature search was conducted to identify eligible articles published before 30 November 2013 and each article was reviewed by all authors. All articles were written in English. Expert opinion: Currently, there is no clinically effective localised therapeutic intervention strategy to prevent the condition. New emerging areas of research have recently been proposed to play key roles in the development of alimentary mucositis and these areas may provide researchers and clinicians with new research directions. Hopefully this will continue, and evidence-based informed guidelines can be produced to improve clinical practice management of this condition.Expert opinion on biological therapy 01/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor