Ventilation-perfusion relationships during exercise in standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Equine Veterinary Journal (Impact Factor: 2.29). 08/1999; 30:107-13. DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1999.tb05199.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the pulmonary gas exchange during exercise in Standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia (RCHV), 12 horses with RCHV were compared with 9 normovolaemic (NV) horses. VO2 and VCO2 were determined with an open bias flow system. Cardiovascular and haemodynamic data were recorded during exercise at 4 different speeds on a treadmill. Pulmonary gas exchange was assessed by conventional blood gas variables (arterial and mixed venous blood gas tensions), and the ventilation-perfusion distribution VA/Q was estimated by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. VA and AaDO2 were calculated. Dispersions of perfusion and ventilation distribution (SDQ, SDV) were determined. HR, RR, Qt, VO2, VA, log SDV, C(a-åv)O2 and lactate did not differ between groups. The degree of hypoxaemia was more pronounced in the RCHV than in the NV (PaO2 = 54 and 59 mmHg; AaDO2 = 41 and 34 mmHg in RCHV and NV, respectively, at highest workload). Further, pH was lower in the RCHV and PaCO2 and VCO2 was significantly higher in the RCHV during the course of exercise (pH = 7.24 and 7.29; PaCO2 = 56 and 51 mmHg; VCO2 = 156 and 135 ml/kg x min in RCHV and NV, respectively, at highest workload). The PaO2 predicted from the VA/Q distribution was higher than actually measured in blood during heavy exercise which may suggest a certain diffusion limitation over the alveolar-capillary membranes in both groups but there was no difference between the 2 groups. The more pronounced hypoxaemia observed in RCHV trotters was mainly caused by increased VA/Q mismatch expressed as a significantly increased log SDQ (0.78 and 0.45 in RCHV and NV, respectively, at highest workload).

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Five Standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia (RCHV) were compared before and after removal of approximately 22% (36 ml/kg bwt) of the total blood volume in order to evaluate the haemodynamic responses, haemorheological alterations and oxygen transport during exercise to fatigue. Data were recorded during submaximal exercise at 4 different speeds on a treadmill and then during continued running at the highest speed step until fatigue. Oxygen uptake (VO2), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), systemic artery pressure (SAP), heart rate (HR), haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) were measured. Arteriovenous O2 content difference (C(a-v)O2), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and total systemic resistance (TSR) were calculated. Whole blood and plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were determined with a rotational viscometer. Endoscopy was performed after exercise. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Phlebotomy resulted in a decrease in haematocrit and Hb during the course of exercise. Blood and plasma viscosity were lower and erythrocyte aggregation tendency was higher after phlebotomy. Throughout exercise, including submaximal work and continued running to fatigue, PAP, SAP, PVR, TSR and C(a-v)O2 were lower after phlebotomy. HR was higher after phlebotomy during submaximal exercise. Oxygen delivery and VO2 were lower after phlebotomy in the period from submaximal exercise to fatigue. Run time to fatigue was shorter after phlebotomy. Four horses showed exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) before phlebotomy and the degree of bleeding was diminished but not abolished after phlebotomy. The reductions in PVR, TSR, PAP and SAP after phlebotomy were probably a result of reduced blood viscosity. In conclusion, although a 22% reduction in blood volume improved the haemodynamic and haemorheological parameters and the degree of EIPH, it was found that RCHV trotters have to rely on high oxygen delivery to the working muscles for maintenance of maximal performance.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2001; 33(4):417-24. · 2.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association between red blood cell hypervolemia (RCHV) and racing performance was examined in 116 Standardbred trotters referred to the clinic during a 5 year period with histories of impaired racing performance. Red cell hypervolaemia was the only significant abnormality detected in a thorough clinical examination, cell volumes ranging 116–178% of the predicted normal values. They were also compared with the performance traits of the contemporary Swedish Standardbred trotter population (n = 58,058). The performance traits were based on earnings per year and start, best annual racing time, % placings 1 to 3, and calculated individual performance indices (PI) published in the Annual Statistics for Swedish Trotting. These parameters were transformed to approach normal distributions.The results indicated that horses developing RCHV tended to have been superior athletes initially compared to the contemporary population average. After 3 to 4 years of racing (at mean age ± s.d. 5.5 ± 1.5 years) their racing performance declined rapidly during the year of diagnosis of RCHV. Therefore, both earning and placing traits were reduced and best racing time increased. Further, the PI, well above the population average prior to diagnosis, was reduced significantly. During the 3 year period following diagnosis, a slight improvement in racing performance was noted although it was not restored to previous racing form. It was concluded that RCHV in the Standardbred trotter may denote the end of a successful racing career.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2010; 31(S30):617 - 620. · 2.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is not known if pulmonary function and gas exchange during exercise are altered after pyogranulomatous pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi infection in the foal. The aim was to evaluate whether pulmonary gas exchange during high intensity exercise was altered in mature Standardbreds with a history of R. equi pneumonia as foals. In 7 foals, R. equi pneumonia was confirmed and treated. At age 3 years, when these horses were subjected to professional training, an inclined treadmill exercise test including 4 speeds was performed. Samples were collected when a steady state in VO2 was obtained. Red cell volume, heart rate, respiratory rate, and systemic and pulmonary mean arterial pressures were measured and cardiac output calculated. Oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions in arterial and mixed venous blood were analysed. The alveolar ventilation and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference were determined. Pulmonary gas exchange was assessed and the ventilation-perfusion distribution, VA/Q, was estimated by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch and shunt were determined and diffusion limitation calculated. The gas exchange in Standardbred trotters previously infected with R. equi and successfully treated was not compromised during intense treadmill exercise compared with reference values for healthy, fit Standardbreds. We conclude that adult Standardbreds trotters with diagnosed R. equi pneumonia as foals, can achieve an adequate gas exchange at a workload close to VO2peak.
    Equine veterinary journal. Supplement. 10/2002;

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Oct 14, 2014