Near-Full-Length Genome Sequencing of Divergent African HIV Type 1 Subtype F Viruses Leads to the Identification of a New HIV Type 1 Subtype Designated K

Laboratoire Rétrovirus, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (Impact Factor: 2.33). 02/2000; 16(2):139-51. DOI: 10.1089/088922200309485
Source: PubMed


We recently reported a high divergence among African subtype F strains. Three well-separated groups (F1, F2, and F3) have been shown based on the phylogenetic analysis of the p24 gag and envelope sequences with genetic distances similar to those observed for known subtypes. In this study, we characterized the near-full-length genomes of two strains from epidemiological unlinked individual belonging to each of the subgroups: F1 (96FR-MP411), F2 (95CM-MP255 and 95CM-MP257), and F3 (96CM-MP535 and 97ZR-EQTB11). Phylogenetic analysis of the near-full-length sequences and for each of the genes separately showed the same three groups, supported by high bootstrap values. Diversity plotting, BLAST subtyping, and bootstrap plotting confirmed that the divergent F strains correspond to nonrecombinant viruses. The divergence between F1 and F2 is consistently lower than that seen in any other intersubtype comparison, with the exception of subtypes B and D. Based on all the different analyses, we propose to divide subtype F into two subclades, with F1 gathering the known subtype F strains from Brazil and Finland, and our African strain (96FR-MP411), and F2 containing the 95CM-MP255 and 95CM-MP257 strains from Cameroon. The F3 strains, 97ZR-EQTB11 from the Democratic Republic of Congo and 96CM-MP535 from Cameroon, meet the criteria of a new subtype designated as K. The equidistance of subtype K to the other subtypes of HIV-1 suggests that this subtype existed as long as the others, the lower distance between B and D, and between F1 and F2 suggest a more recent subdivision for these latter strains.

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Available from: Nicole Vidal, Jan 15, 2015
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    • "Subsequent analysis with previously unavailable complete genome sequences has revealed that the virus is in fact mosaic with regions associated with subtypes A, G, H, and K and unclassified regions [14]. The CRF06 recombinant was previously named “CRF06_AGJ,” but the subsequent identification of subtype K suggested that some regions of CRF06 are subtype K, so the subtype is now designated as “CRF06_cpx” and it includes subtypes A, G, J, and K [15]. The recombinant structure of the reference sequence was subsequently analyzed by Montavon et al. [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recombination is one of the major mechanisms underlying the generation of HIV-1 variability. Currently 61 circulating recombinant forms of HIV-1 have been identified. With the development of recombination detection techniques and accumulation of HIV-1 reference stains, more accurate mosaic structures of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), like CRF04 and CRF06, have undergone repeated analysis and upgrades. Such revisions may also be necessary for other CRFs. Unlike previous studies, whose results are based primarily on a single recombination detection program, the current study was based on multiple recombination analysis, which may have produced more impartial results. Methods Representative references of 3 categories of intersubtype recombinants were selected, including BC recombinants (CRF07 and CRF08), BG recombinants (CRF23 and CRF24), and BF recombinants (CRF38 and CRF44). They were reanalyzed in detail using both the jumping profile hidden Markov model and RDP3. Results The results indicate that revisions and upgrades are very necessary and the entire re-analysis suggested 2 types of revision: (i) length of inserted fragments; and (ii) number of inserted fragments. The reanalysis also indicated that determination of small regions of about 200 bases or fewer should be performed with more caution. Conclusion Results indicated that the involvement of multiple recombination detection programs is very necessary. Additionally, results suggested two major challenges, one involving the difficulty of accurately determining the locations of breakpoints and the second involving identification of small regions of about 200 bases or fewer with greater caution. Both indicate the complexity of HIV-1 recombination. The resolution would depend critically on development of a recombination analysis algorithm, accumulation of HIV-1 stains, and a higher sequencing quality. With the changes in recombination pattern, phylogenetic relationships of some CRFs may also change. All these results may be critical to understand the role of recombination in a complex and dynamic HIV evolution.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107349. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107349 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "These URFs were found to be associated with persons reporting travel abroad who may be facilitating the increase of viral diversity in Bulgaria. All of the URFs identified in our study, including the clusters of A-like and F-like sequences, will require further characterization using complete genomes to determine their genetic composition and final classification as was done for subtype K and the A and F sub-subtypes [41], [49]–[51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Limited information is available to describe the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Bulgaria. To better understand the genetic diversity and the epidemiologic dynamics of HIV-1 we analyzed 125 new polymerase (pol) sequences from Bulgarians diagnosed through 2009 and 77 pol sequences available from our previous study from persons infected prior to 2007. Epidemiologic and demographic information was obtained from each participant and phylogenetic analysis was used to infer HIV-1 evolutionary histories. 120 (59.5%) persons were infected with one of five different HIV-1 subtypes (A1, B, C, F1 and H) and 63 (31.2%) persons were infected with one of six different circulating recombinant forms (CRFs; 01_AE, 02_AG, 04_cpx, 05_DF, 14_BG, and 36_cpx). We also for the first time identified infection with two different clusters of unique A-like and F-like sub-subtype variants in 12 persons (5.9%) and seven unique recombinant forms (3.5%), including a novel J/C recombinant. While subtype B was the major genotype identified and was more prevalent in MSM and increased between 2000-2005, most non-B subtypes were present in persons ≥45 years old. CRF01_AE was the most common non-B subtype and was higher in women and IDUs relative to other risk groups combined. Our results show that HIV-1 infection in Bulgaria reflects the shifting distribution of genotypes coincident with the changing epidemiology of the HIV-1 epidemic among different risk groups. Our data support increased public health interventions targeting IDUs and MSM. Furthermore, the substantial and increasing HIV-1 genetic heterogeneity, combined with fluctuating infection dynamics, highlights the importance of sustained and expanded surveillance to prevent and control HIV-1 infection in Bulgaria.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 2013;8(3):e59666(2013;8(3):e59666). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059666 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The partial genome sequences and phylogenies based on env and gag genes further led to designation of subtypes G to J [9-11]. Phylogenetic comparisons of A and F led to determination of sub-subtypes that form differential clusters within the corresponding subtypes [12]. Generally, HIV-1 strains fall into the appropriate phylogenetic clusters when multiple regions of their genome are analysed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), exhibits very high genetic diversity with different variants or subtypes prevalent in different parts of the world. Proper classification of the HIV-1 subtypes, displaying differential infectivity, plays a major role in monitoring the epidemic and is also a critical component for effective treatment strategy. The existing methods to classify HIV-1 sequence subtypes, based on phylogenetic analysis focusing only on specific genes/regions, have shown inconsistencies as they lack the capability to analyse whole genome variations. Several isolates are left unclassified due to unresolved sub-typing. It is apparent that classification of subtypes based on complete genome sequences, rather than sub-genomic regions, is a more robust and comprehensive approach to address genome-wide heterogeneity. However, no simple methodology exists that directly computes HIV-1 subtype from the complete genome sequence. We use Chaos Game Representation (CGR) as an approach to identify the distinctive genomic signature associated with the DNA sequence organisation in different HIV-1 subtypes. We first analysed the effect of nucleotide word lengths (k = 2 to 8) on whole genomes of the HIV-1 M group sequences, and found the optimum word length of k = 6, that could classify HIV-1 subtypes based on a Test sequence set. Using the optimised word length, we then showed accurate classification of the HIV-1 subtypes from both the Reference Set sequences and from all available sequences in the database. Finally, we applied the approach to cluster the five unclassified HIV-1 sequences from Africa and Europe, and predict their possible subtypes. We propose a genomic signature-based approach, using CGR with suitable word length optimisation, which can be applied to classify intra-species variations, and apply it to the complex problem of HIV-1 subtype classification. We demonstrate that CGR is a simple and computationally less intensive method that not only accurately segregates the HIV-1 subtype and sub-subtypes, but also aid in the classification of the unclassified sequences. We hope that it will be useful in subtype annotation of the newly sequenced HIV-1 genomes.
    BMC Bioinformatics 01/2010; 11 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S26. DOI:10.1186/1471-2105-11-S1-S26 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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