Differential effects of retinoic acid on growth and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines associated with the induction of retinoic acid receptor beta.
ABSTRACT Retinoids are well known as potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents against a variety of human cancers. Here, we report that retinoic acid (RA) induced differential growth inhibition in human colon cancer cell lines: while DLD-1, HT-29, and WiDr were relatively resistant, HCT-15 and Colo201 were relatively sensitive. All-trans-retinoic acid caused morphological and biochemical changes such as membrane shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and DNA cleavage, which are typical features of cells undergoing apoptosis in sensitive cell lines. Although retinoic acid receptor (RAR)alpha, beta, gamma and retinoid X receptor alpha were expressed in all cell lines examined, a significant induction of RARbeta by all-trans-RA was observed only in sensitive cell lines, suggesting important roles of RARbeta in RA sensitivity. When a vector containing the RARbeta gene was introduced into a relatively resistant cell line, DLD-1, the cells acquired RA sensitivity. Further, we found that the RARbeta transfectants of DLD-1 expressed an enhanced level of c-Myc and Bax proteins, which may result in the increased susceptibility of the cells to all-trans-RA-induced apoptosis. In summary, our data demonstrated that RA induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and that the induction of RAR3 may mediate the retinoid action.
- SourceAvailable from: Juan Carlos Romero-Benavides[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cancer remains a public health problem with a high unmet medical demand. However, in recent decades, the knowledge of several functional molecular and biological traits that distinguish tumor cells from normal cells, known as the hallmarks of cancer as described by Hannahan and Weinberg, has led to new and modern therapeutic approaches against this disease. Most cancer drugs are deliberately developed for specific molecular targets that involve these hallmarks. In this review, we address the currently available cancer drugs and development of new drugs from the perspective of their interaction with these hallmarks as well as the pathways and mechanisms involved.Tumor Biology 01/2014; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is ranked among the top leading causes of cancer death in industrialized populations. Polycomb group proteins, including Suz12 and Ezh2, are epigenetic regulatory proteins that act as transcriptional repressors of many differentiation-associated genes and are overexpressed in a large subset of colorectal cancers. Retinoic acid (RA) acts as a negative regulator of PcG actions in stem cells, but has shown limited therapeutic potential in some solid tumors, including colorectal cancer, in part because of retinoic acid receptor β silencing. Through treatment with RA, Suz12 shRNA knockdown, or Ezh2 pharmacological inhibition with 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), we increased TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cell lines. This increased apoptosis in human colon cancer cells after RA or DZNep treatment was associated with a ∼2.5-fold increase in TNFRSF10B (DR5) transcript levels and a 42% reduction in the H3K27me3 epigenetic mark at the TNFRSF10B promoter after DZNep addition. Taken together, our findings indicate that pharmacological inhibition of Polycomb repressive complex 2 histone methyltransferase activity may constitute a new epigenetic therapeutic strategy to overcome RA non-responsiveness in a subset of colorectal tumors by increasing TRAIL-mediated apoptosis sensitivity. J. Cell. Physiol. 228: 764–772, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 04/2013; 228(4). · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent pro-inflammatory mediators that are increased in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Individuals with IBDs have enhanced susceptibility to colon carcinogenesis. In colorectal cancer, the balance between the pro-mitogenic cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor (CysLT1R) and the differentiation-promoting cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor (CysLT2R) is lost. Further, our previous data indicate that patients with high CysLT1R and low CysLT2R expression have a poor prognosis. In this study, we examined whether the balance between CysLT1R and CysLT2R could be restored by treatment with the cancer chemopreventive agent all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To determine the effect of ATRA on CysLT2R promoter activation, mRNA level, and protein level, we performed luciferase gene reporter assays, real-time polymerase chain reactions, and Western blots in colon cancer cell lines under various conditions. ATRA treatment induces CysLT2R mRNA and protein expression without affecting CysLT1R levels. Experiments using siRNA and mutant cell lines indicate that the up-regulation is retinoic acid receptor (RAR) dependent. Interestingly, ATRA also up-regulates mRNA expression of leukotriene C4 synthase, the enzyme responsible for the production of the ligand for CysLT2R. Importantly, ATRA-induced differentiation of colorectal cancer cells as shown by increased expression of MUC-2 and production of alkaline phosphatase, both of which could be reduced by a CysLT2R-specific inhibitor. This study identifies a novel mechanism of action for ATRA in colorectal cancer cell differentiation and demonstrates that retinoids can have anti-tumorigenic effects through their action on the cysteinyl leukotriene pathway.BMC Cancer 07/2013; 13(1):336. · 3.33 Impact Factor