To examine the relationship between migraine and major depression, by estimating the risk for first-onset major depression associated with prior migraine and the risk for first migraine associated with prior major depression. We also examined the extent to which comorbidity with major depression is specific to migraine or is observed in other severe headaches.
Representative samples of persons 25 to 55 years of age with migraine or other severe headaches (i.e., disabling headaches without migraine features) and controls with no history of severe headaches were identified by a telephone survey and later interviewed in person to ascertain history of common psychiatric disorders.
Lifetime prevalence of major depression was approximately three times higher in persons with migraine and in persons with severe headaches compared with controls. Significant bidirectional relationships were observed between major depression and migraine, with migraine predicting first-onset depression and depression predicting first-onset migraine. In contrast, persons with severe headaches had a higher incidence of first-onset major depression (hazard ratio = 3.6), but major depression did not predict a significantly increased incidence of other severe headaches (hazard ratio = 1.6).
The contrasting results regarding the relationship of major depression with migraine versus other severe headaches suggest that different causes may underlie the co-occurrence of major depression in persons with migraine compared with persons with other severe headaches.
"The prevalence of major depression has been reported in a number of studies to be 1.7 fold or higher among individuals with migraine compared to non-migraineurs
. In a recent study Ligthart and associates analyzed a cohort with different types of chronic pain and concluded that anxiety and depression can explain a considerable part of the comorbidity of migraine and other types of pain
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comorbidity of migraine with anxiety and depression may play a role in the link between migraine and obesity. We examined the moderating and mediating roles of ghrelin in the relationship between depression (and anxiety) and body weight in newly diagnosed migraineurs.
Participants were 63 newly diagnosed migraine patients (using the ICHD-II criteria) and 42 healthy volunteers. Body mass index was calculated by measuring height and weight. Ghrelin was assessed at fasting. Depression was assessed with the Hamilton Depression scale, and anxiety with the Hamilton Anxiety scale.
The data did not support the mediating role of ghrelin in the relationship between depression (or anxiety) and BMI for either the migraine or the control group. The interaction between ghrelin and depression as well as anxiety was significant for the migraine group, but not for the control group. Depressed (or anxious) migraineurs had a positive association between ghrelin and BMI, whereas for the non-depressed (or non-anxious) migraineurs this association was negative.
Depression and anxiety moderated the effect of ghrelin on BMI for migraineurs. Management of anxiety and depression might be regarded as part of migraine treatment.
The Journal of Headache and Pain 04/2014; 15(1):23. DOI:10.1186/1129-2377-15-23 · 2.80 Impact Factor
"A number of population-based studies from North America and Europe have shown that individuals suffering from migraine have between about 1.3 and 5.8 times higher odds of depression than those without this condition [8–15]. The relationship between migraine and depression, however, is likely to be bidirectional [8, 15]. Breslau and colleagues [8, 15] have shown that those reporting depression at baseline have a higher risk of first-onset migraine during the two-year follow-up period and that those with migraine at baseline have an increased risk of developing first onset major depression during followup. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to (1) investigate the association between migraine and both depression and suicidal ideation and (2) to identify the factors independently associated with each of these mental health problems among Canadian men and women with migraine. Data were analyzed from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Presence of migraine was assessed by self-report of a health professional diagnosis. Current depression was measured using the CIDI-SF, and suicidal ideation was based on a question about serious consideration of suicide at any point during the respondent's lifetime. Migraineurs were found to have elevated odds of depression (men: OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.70, 2.41; women: OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.71, 2.10) and suicidal ideation (men: OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.55, 1.96; women: OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.59, 1.86) even when adjusting for sociodemographic variables and disability status. The odds of depression and suicidal ideation were higher among both genders of migraineurs who were younger, unmarried and had more activity limitations; associations with poverty and race depended on gender and whether the focus was on depression or suicidal ideation. While screening for depression is already recommended for those with migraine, this research helps identify which migraineurs may require more immediate attention, including those who are younger, unmarried, and experiencing limitations in their activities.
Depression research and treatment 10/2013; 2013(7):401487. DOI:10.1155/2013/401487
"Moreover, we have to take into account that most studies on the personality traits of migraineurs are focused on adult subjects.49–54 These studies evidenced that psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety, can be concomitant with the presence of migraine, adding significant morbidity.55 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Empirical evidence of the important role of the family in primary pediatric headache has grown significantly in the last few years, although the interconnections between the dysfunctional process and the family interaction are still unclear. Even though the role of parenting in childhood migraine is well known, no studies about the personality of parents of migraine children have been conducted. The aim of the present study was to assess, using an objective measure, the personality profile of mothers of children affected by migraine without aura (MoA).
A total of 269 mothers of MoA children (153 male, 116 female, aged between 6 and 12 years; mean 8.93 ± 3.57 years) were compared with the findings obtained from a sample of mothers of 587 healthy children (316 male, 271 female, mean age 8.74 ± 3.57 years) randomly selected from schools in the Campania, Umbria, Calabria, and Sicily regions. Each mother filled out the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - second edition (MMPI-2), widely used to diagnose personality and psychological disorders. The t-test was used to compare age and MMPI-2 clinical basic and content scales between mothers of MoA and typical developing children, and Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate the relation between MMPI-2 scores of mothers of MoA children and frequency, intensity, and duration of migraine attacks of their children.
Mothers of MoA children showed significantly higher scores in the paranoia and social introversion clinical basic subscales, and in the anxiety, obsessiveness, depression, health concerns, bizarre mentation, cynicism, type A, low self-esteem, work interference, and negative treatment indicator clinical content subscales (P < 0.001 for all variables). Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between MoA frequency of children and anxiety (r = 0.4903, P = 0.024) and low self-esteem (r = 0.5130, P = 0.017), while the MoA duration of children was related with hypochondriasis (r = 0.6155, P = 0.003), hysteria (r = 0.6235, P = 0.003), paranoia (r = 0.5102, P = 0.018), psychasthenia (r = 0.4806, P = 0.027), schizophrenia (r = 0.4350, P = 0.049), anxiety (r = 0.4332, P = 0.050), and health concerns (r = 0.7039, P < 0.001) MMPI-2 scores of their mothers.
This could be considered a preliminary study that indicates the potential value of maternal personality assessment for better comprehension and clinical management of children affected by migraine, though further studies on the other primary headaches are necessary.
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