Download full-text


Available from: Jim Geddes, Aug 13, 2014
18 Reads
  • Source
    • "ytosolic DA in nigrostriatal terminals . In fact , the role of DA receptors on MA - induced DA toxicity mostly relies on functional changes and does not seem to have a prominent role in the neurotoxicity . On the other hand , a role for DA receptors activation in the survival an integrity of striatal GABA neurons was suggested in previous papers ( Maragos et al . 1998 , 1999 ) ."
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure of PC12 cells to metamphetamine (MA) induces the formation of multilamellar structures (whorls) resembling autophagic granules that subsequently develop as intracellular inclusions. These inclusions stain for a variety of antigens belonging to the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Since MA-induced intracellular bodies require the presence of dopamine in the present study we analyzed the role of dopamine (DA) receptors in producing neuronal inclusions. Moreover, we investigated potential signaling pathways which could lead to ubiquitination in the presence of MA. Based on recent reports that ubiquitination of beta-adrenergic receptors is promoted by beta-arrestin which shuttles proteins from the plasma membrane to the ubiquitin proteasome system we investigated whether beta-arrestin is involved in MA-induced inclusion formation. Our experiments document that (i) beta-arrestin was associated with MA-induced intracellular bodies; (ii) MA induced a rapid and reversible ubiquitination of beta-arrestin; (iii) dopamine antagonists reduced both MA-induced beta-arrestin ubiquitination and intracellular whorls formation; (iv) the number of MA-induced intracellular bodies was reduced in cells transfected with the beta-arrestin dominant negative mutant, betaarrV53D and was increased by the persistently ubiquitinated beta-arrestin-ubiquitin fusion protein. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the involvement of beta-arrestin in MA-induced intracellular bodies and the participation of dopamine receptors in this process.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2008; 105(5):1939-47. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05284.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endogenous striatal dopamine (DA) overflow has been associated with neuropathological conditions resulting from ischemia, psychostimulants, and metabolic inhibition. Malonate, a reversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, models the effects of energy impairment in neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously reported that the striatal DA efflux and damage to DA nerve terminals resulting from intrastriatal malonate infusions is prevented by prior DA depletion, suggesting that DA plays a role in the neuronal damage. We presently report that the malonate-induced DA efflux is partially mediated by reverse transport of DA from the cytosol to the extracellular space via the DA transporter (DAT). Pharmacological blockade of the DAT with a series of structurally different inhibitors [cocaine, mazindol, 1-(2-(bis(4-fluophenyl methoxy) ethyl)-4-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-propyl)piperazine) dimethane sulfonate (GBR 13098) and methyl(-)-3beta-(p-fluorophenyl)-1alphaH,5alphaH-tropane-2beta-carboxylate1,5-naphthalene (Win 35,428)] attenuated malonate-induced DA overflow in vivo and protected mice against subsequent damage to DA nerve terminals. Consistent with these findings, the DAT inhibitors prevented malonate-induced damage to DA neurons in mesencephalic cultures and also protected against the loss of GABA neurons in this system. The DAT inhibitors did not modify malonate-induced formation of reactive oxygen species or lactate production, indicating that the DAT inhibitors neither exert antioxidant effects nor interfere with the actions of malonate. Taken together, these findings provide direct evidence that mitochondrial impairment and metabolic stress cause striatal DA efflux via the DAT and suggest that disruptions in DA homeostasis resulting from energy impairment may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2007; 320(2):747-56. DOI:10.1124/jpet.106.110791 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Nrf2 controls inducible expression of multiple antioxidant/detoxification genes. We previously found that Nrf2-/- mice have increased sensitivity to in vivo mitochondrial stress and ischemia. Although Nrf2 regulated these forms of neuronal toxicity, it was unclear which injury-triggered signal(s) led to Nrf2 activation in vivo. In this study, we use primary cultures to test the hypothesis that excessive dopamine release can act as an endogenous Nrf2-inducing signal. We cultured two cell types that show increased Nrf2 activity during ischemia in vivo, astrocytes and meningeal cells. Cultures were infected with an adenovirus reporter of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. Dopamine-induced Nrf2 activity in both cell types by generating oxidative stressors, H2O2 and dopamine-quinones. Nrf2 activation in meningeal cells was significantly higher than astrocytes. The effect of dopamine was blocked by antioxidants, and by over-expression of either dominant-negative Nrf2 or Keap1. Nrf2 induction was specific to oxidative stress caused by catecholaminergic neurotransmitters as epinephrine also induced Nrf2, but the monoamine serotonin had no significant effect. These in vitro results suggest Nrf2 activity in astrocytes and meningeal cells link the neurotoxic actions of dopamine to neuroprotective pathways that may potentially modulate ischemic injury and neurodegeneration.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 04/2007; 101(1):109-19. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04345.x · 4.28 Impact Factor