The effect of interaction with DNA and oligonucleotides on the photophysical properties of two thiazole orange (TO) derivatives, with different side chains (-(CH2)3-N+(CH3)3 and -(CH2)6-I)) linked to the nitrogen of the quinoline ring of the thiazole orange, is presented here. The first one called TO-PRO1 is a commercially available dye, whereas the second one called TO-MET has been specially synthesized for further covalent binding to oligonucleotides with the aim of being used for specific in situ detection of biomolecular interactions. Both photophysical measurements and molecular calculations have been done to assess their possible mode of interaction with DNA. When dissolved in buffered aqueous solutions both derivatives exhibit very low fluorescence quantum yields of 8 x 10(-5) and 2 x 10(-4), respectively. However, upon binding to double-stranded DNA, large spectroscopic changes result and the quantum yield of fluorescence is enhanced by four orders of magnitude, reaching values up to phi F = 0.2 and 0.3, respectively, as a result of an intercalation mechanism between DNA base pairs. A modulation of the quantum yield is observed as a function of the base sequence. The two derivatives also bind with single-stranded oligonucleotides, but the fluorescence quantum yield is not so great as that when bound to double-stranded samples. Typical fluorescence quantum yields of 7 x 10(-3) to 3 x 10(-2) are observed when the dyes interact with short oligonucleotides, whereas the fluorescence quantum yield remains below 10(-2) when interacting with single-stranded oligonucleotides. This slight but significant quantum-yield increase is interpreted as a folding of the single strand around the dye, which reduces the internal rotation of the two heterocycles around the central methine bridge that links the two moieties of the dye. From these properties, it is proposed to link monomer covalently to oligonucleotides for the subsequent detection of target sequences within cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fluorescence properties of newly synthesized homodimeric monomethine cyanine dyes in the presence of biopolymers are investigated. They do not fluoresce in TE buffer and bidistilled water but become strongly fluorescent (Q(F)=0.3-0.9) in the region 530-650 nm when bound to dsDNA and ssDNA. The detection limit of dsDNA is about 1.7 ng/ml. Some of dyes studied are able to distinguish between dsDNA and ssDNA, RNA, BSA in solution and gel electrophoresis. The influence of different factors (temperature, pH and viscosity of the medium, presence of histone) on the formation of the dye-biopolymer complexes is investigated. The results of steady-state and dynamic fluorescence measurements concerning the different types of binding between dyes and biopolymers show that the new dyes are applicable in molecular biology as highly sensitive fluorescence labels.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 12/2000; 58(2-3):130-5. DOI:10.1016/S1011-1344(00)00116-0 · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiazole orange label was coupled to the eighth phosphate of a pentadeca-2'-deoxyriboadenylate via a phosphoramidate linkage using different linkers. The stereoisomers were separated, and their absolute configurations were determined. Finally, the thiazole orange moiety was also linked to the tenth phosphate of icosathymidylates in both the alpha and the beta series via a phosphoramidate linkage. Once again, the thiazole orange-icosathymidylate conjugates were obtained as pure stereoisomers. The binding properties of these oligo-2'-deoxyribonucleotide-thiazole orange conjugates with their complementary sequences were studied by absorption spectroscopy. The covalent attachment of the thiazole orange derivatives to the oligoadenylates stabilizes the complexes formed with both the DNA and RNA targets. On the contrary, when the thiazole orange is tethered to the oligo-alpha-thymidylate or oligo-beta-thymidylate, no significant stabilization of the duplexes formed with poly r(A) can be observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT“Light-up” probes, icosa-α-thymidylate-thiazole orange conjugates, for the in situ time-resolved detection of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in living cells are evaluated. Upon annealing with polyA in aqueous solutions, the icosa-α-thymidylate-thiazole orange conjugates were shown to be up to 15 times more fluorescent. Microinjection of these probes into adherent fibroblasts resulted in high yields of hybridization and fluorescent signals. Incubation of cells in the presence of these probes resulted in facile internalization of the probe and similar painting of the messenger RNA in the nuclear and cytosolic regions.
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