A survey of fragile X syndrome in a sample from Spanish Basque country.
ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. The syndrome is associated with a CGG repeat expansion in the 5'UTR of the first exon of the FMR1 gene. This gene maps to Xq27.3 and coincides with the cytogenetic fragile site (FRAXA). The present study deals with the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among individuals with mental retardation of unknown cause from institutions and special schools from the Spanish Basque Country. Results of cytogenetic and molecular studies, performed in a group of 134 unrelated individuals (92 males and 42 females) are presented. The cytogenetic marker at Xq27.3 was identified in 12 patients. Other chromosomal abnormalities were found in two cases that this and previous studies confirmed as Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes. Two males, in whom the cytogenetic marker was identified, were found negative for FRAXA and FRAXE expansion at the molecular level. The present study shows that the frequency of the FRAXA full mutation in individuals of Spanish non-Basque origin is in the range of other Spanish populations. In the sample of Spanish Basque origin we have not found cytogenetic FRAXA site expression, and the CGG repeat size of FMR1 gene is in the normal range. The significance of these results are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The expansion of a trinucleotide repeat [CGG]n located in the FMR1 X-linked gene is the main cause of fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation. We have analyzed the factors known, to date, to influence the instability of the repeat in 158 normal X chromosomes from the Spanish Basque population. These factors included length of the repeat, AGG interspersion pattern, length of uninterrupted CGG and DXS548-FRAXAC1 markers associated haplotype. Previous investigations on Basques showed an absence of this disorder among mentally retarded individuals that was likely due to a low prevalence of large CGG alleles and the presence of AGG interruptions on them. The present report suggests that, although the frequency of large alleles is low and they do maintain AGG interruptions, different mutational pathways that might lead to fragile X syndrome could be occurring among Basques. These pathways mainly include alleles with internal sequences 9 + 9 + n and 9 + 12 + 9 that show fragile X associated haplotypes. Besides, the lack of the most proximal AGG interruption, proposed recently as a novel factor involved in CGG repeat instability, was highly identified among alleles with long pure CGG tracts, which showed an internal sequence n + 9. The data suggest that, despite the lower incidence of large alleles, the prevalence of potentially unstable alleles among Basques is similar to that of other Caucasian populations and that these alleles could become fragile X chromosomes.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2004; 128A(3):250-5. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is associated with an unstable CGG repeat sequence in the 5' untranslated region in the first exon of the FMR1 gene which resides at chromosome position Xq27.3 and is coincident with the fragile site FRAXA. The CGG sequence is polymorphic with respect to size and purity of the repeat. Interpopulation variation in the polymorphism of the FMR1 gene and consequently, in the predisposition to FXS due to the prevalence of certain unstable alleles has been observed. Spanish Basque population is distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. We had previously reported preliminary data on the existence of FMR1 allele differences between two Basque valleys (Markina and Arratia). In the present work we extended the study to Uribe, Gernika, Durango, Goierri and Larraun, another five isolated valleys enclosing the whole area within the Spanish Basque region. We analyzed the prevalence of FMR1 premutated and intermediate/grey zone alleles. With the aim to complete the previous investigation about the stability of the Fragile X CGG repeat in Basque valleys, we also analyzed the existence of potentially unstable alleles, not only in relation with size and purity of CGG repeat but also in relation with DXS548 and FRAXAC1 haplotypes implicated in repeat instability. The data show that differences in allele frequencies as well as in the distribution of the mutational pathways previously identified are present among Basques. The data also suggest that compared with the analyzed Basque valleys, Gernika had increased frequency of susceptibility to instability alleles, although the prevalence of premutation and intermediate/grey zone alleles in all the analyzed valleys was lower than that reported in Caucasian populations.Current Genomics 06/2008; 9(3):191-9. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, which is accompanied by macroorchidism and distinct facial morphology. FXS is caused by the expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The syndrome has been studied in ethnically diverse populations around the world and has been extensively characterized in several populations. Similar to other trinucleotide expansion disorders, the gene-specific instability of FMR1 is not accompanied by genomic instability. Currently we do not have a comprehensive understanding of the molecular underpinnings of gene-specific instability associated with tandem repeats. Molecular evidence from in vitro experiments and animal models supports several pathways for gene-specific trinucleotide repeat expansion. However, whether the mechanisms reported from other systems contribute to trinucleotide repeat expansion in humans is not clear. To understand how repeat instability in humans could occur, the CGG repeat expansion is explored through molecular analysis and population studies which characterized CGG repeat alleles of FMR1. Finally, the review discusses the relevance of these studies in understanding the mechanism of trinucleotide repeat expansion in FXS.Annals of Human Genetics 12/2011; 76(2):178-91. · 2.22 Impact Factor