A survey of fragile X syndrome in a sample from Spanish Basque country.

Departmento de Biologia Animal y Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Pais Vasco, bilbao, Spain.
Annales de Génétique 02/1999; 42(4):197-201.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. The syndrome is associated with a CGG repeat expansion in the 5'UTR of the first exon of the FMR1 gene. This gene maps to Xq27.3 and coincides with the cytogenetic fragile site (FRAXA). The present study deals with the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among individuals with mental retardation of unknown cause from institutions and special schools from the Spanish Basque Country. Results of cytogenetic and molecular studies, performed in a group of 134 unrelated individuals (92 males and 42 females) are presented. The cytogenetic marker at Xq27.3 was identified in 12 patients. Other chromosomal abnormalities were found in two cases that this and previous studies confirmed as Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes. Two males, in whom the cytogenetic marker was identified, were found negative for FRAXA and FRAXE expansion at the molecular level. The present study shows that the frequency of the FRAXA full mutation in individuals of Spanish non-Basque origin is in the range of other Spanish populations. In the sample of Spanish Basque origin we have not found cytogenetic FRAXA site expression, and the CGG repeat size of FMR1 gene is in the normal range. The significance of these results are discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS, MIM 309550) is mainly due to the expansion of a CGG trinucleotide repeat sequence, found in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Some studies suggest that stable markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the study of populations with genetic identity, could provide a distinct advance to investigate the origin of CGG repeat instability. In this study, seven SNPs (WEX28 rs17312728:G>T, WEX70 rs45631657:C>T, WEX1 rs10521868:A>C, ATL1 rs4949:A>G, FMRb rs25707:A>G, WEX17 rs12010481:C>T and WEX10 ss71651741:C>T) have been analyzed in two Basque valleys (Markina and Arratia). We examined the association between these SNPs and the CGG repeat size, the AGG interruption pattern and two microsatellite markers (FRAXAC1 and DXS548). The results suggest that in both valleys WEX28-T, WEX70-C, WEX1-C, ATL1-G, and WEX10-C are preferably associated with cis-acting sequences directly influencing instability. But comparison of the two valleys reveals also important differences with respect to: (1) frequency and structure of "susceptible" alleles and (2) association between "susceptible" alleles and STR and SNP haplotypes. These results may indicate that, in Arratia, SNP status does not identify a pool of susceptible alleles, as it does in Markina. In Arratia valley, the SNP haplotype association reveals also a potential new "protective" factor.
    Annals of Human Genetics 01/2012; 76(2):110-20. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome is associated with an unstable CGG repeat sequence in the 5' untranslated region of the first exon of the FMR1 gene. The present study involved the evaluation of factors implicated in CGG repeat stability in a normal sample from two Basque valleys (Markina and Arratia), to discover whether the Basque population shows allelic diversity and to identify factors involved, by using the data in conjunction with previous findings. The study was based on a sample of 204 and 58 X chromosomes from the Markina and Arratia valleys, respectively. The CGG repeat, the AGG interspersion and two flanking microsatellite markers, FRAXAC1 and DXS548, were examined. In the Markina valley, gray zone alleles (> or =35 CGG repeats) were associated with anchoring AGGs, with the longest 3' pure CGG repeats of the valley (=15), with the 5' instability structure 9+n and with one principal fragile X FRAXAC1-DXS548 haplotype 42-50. In the Arratia valley, gray zone alleles (> or =35 CGG repeats) showed the highest frequency among the Basque samples analyzed, and were associated with anchoring AGGs, with the longest 3' pure repeats (> or =20), with the 5' instability structure 9+n and with one "normal" FRAXAC1-DXS548 haplotype 38-40 (these data from Arratia suggest the existence of a "protective" haplotype). The results showed, on the one hand, differences between Markina and Arratia in factors implicated in CGG repeat instability and, on the other hand, a great similarity between the general Basque sample from Biscay and the Markina valley.
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    ABSTRACT: The fragile X syndrome, an X-linked dominant disorder with reduced penetrance, is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation. The cognitive, behavioral, and physical phenotype varies by sex, with males being more severely affected because of the X-linked inheritance of the mutation. The disorder-causing mutation is the amplification of a CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of FMR1 located at Xq27.3. The fragile X CGG repeat has four forms: common (6-40 repeats), intermediate (41-60 repeats), premutation (61-200 repeats), and full mutation (>200-230 repeats). Population-based studies suggest that the prevalence of the full mutation, the disorder-causing form of the repeat, ranges from 1/3,717 to 1/8,918 Caucasian males in the general population. The full mutation is also found in other racial/ethnic populations; however, few population-based studies exist for these populations. No population-based studies exist for the full mutation in a general female population. In contrast, several large, population-based studies exist for the premutation or carrier form of the disorder, with prevalence estimates ranging from 1/246 to 1/468 Caucasian females in the general population. For Caucasian males, the prevalence of the premutation is approximately 1/1,000. Like the full mutation, little information exists for the premutation in other populations. Although no effective cure or treatment exists for the fragile X syndrome, all persons affected with the syndrome are eligible for early intervention services. The relatively high prevalence of the premutation and full mutation genotypes coupled with technological advances in genetic testing make the fragile X syndrome amenable to screening. The timing as well as benefits and harms associated with the different screening strategies are the subject of current research and discussion.
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