We compared the susceptibility of Anopheles oswaldoi and An. konderi to infection by Plasmodium vivax based on the proportion of mosquitoes presenting oocysts and sporozoites. Anophelines were captured in the State of Acre and Rondônia, Brazilian Amazon, and used to obtain F1 progenies. After emergence of adults, male genitalia of mosquitoes of each family were dissected in order to identify them as either An. oswaldoi or An. konderi. F1 progenies of field-captured An. oswaldoi, An. konderi and An. darlingi (used as control) were fed simultaneously on P. vivax-infected blood. Mosquitoes were dissected on day 10-12 after feeding and examined for the presence of oocysts and sporozoites. Both An. oswaldoi and An. konderi developed oocysts in the midguts, however, the percentage of oocyst-positive mosquitoes for An. oswaldoi (13.8%) was higher than for An. konderi (3.3%), and only An. oswaldoi developed salivary infection with sporozoites (6.9% of positivity). Infection rates in An. darlingi ranged from 22.5% to 30.0% for both oocysts and sporozoites. These results indicate that An. oswaldoi can transmit P. vivax and suggest that it is more susceptible than An. konderi. Although An. oswaldoi is an exophilic and zoophilic species, it may be involved in malaria transmission as possibly occurred in the State of Acre.
"Drawing from our data and correlation with other published works [9,14,16], the known distribution of An. oswaldoi A now includes the Brazilian States of Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia, and the Colombian Department of Amazonas (Figure 4). Vector incrimination studies in Acre, Brazil determined An. oswaldoi as a local vector of malaria [53-56]. As the only confirmed species of the Oswaldoi Complex present in Acre, Brazil, it seems likely that An. oswaldoi A plays a role in malaria transmission in this state, and most probably throughout its distribution. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective malaria control relies on accurate identification of those Anopheles mosquitoes responsible for the transmission of Plasmodium parasites. Anopheles oswaldoi s.l. has been incriminated as a malaria vector in Colombia and some localities in Brazil, but not ubiquitously throughout its Neotropical range. This evidence together with variable morphological characters and genetic differences supports that An. oswaldoi s.l. compromises a species complex. The recent fully integrated redescription of An. oswaldoi s.s. provides a solid taxonomic foundation from which to molecularly determine other members of the complex.
DNA sequences of the Second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2 - rDNA) (n = 192) and the barcoding region of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene (COI - mtDNA) (n = 110) were generated from 255 specimens of An. oswaldoi s.l. from 33 localities: Brazil (8 localities, including the lectotype series of An. oswaldoi), Ecuador (4), Colombia (17), Trinidad and Tobago (1), and Peru (3). COI sequences were analyzed employing the Kimura-two-parameter model (K2P), Bayesian analysis (MrBayes), Mixed Yule-Coalescent model (MYC, for delimitation of clusters) and TCS genealogies.
Separate and combined analysis of the COI and ITS2 data sets unequivocally supported four separate species: two previously determined (An. oswaldoi s.s. and An. oswaldoi B) and two newly designated species in the Oswaldoi Complex (An. oswaldoi A and An. sp. nr. konderi). The COI intra- and inter-specific genetic distances for the four taxa were non-overlapping, averaging 0.012 (0.007 to 0.020) and 0.052 (0.038 to 0.064), respectively. The concurring four clusters delineated by MrBayes and MYC, and four independent TCS networks, strongly confirmed their separate species status. In addition, An. konderi of Sallum should be regarded as unique with respect to the above. Despite initially being included as an outgroup taxon, this species falls well within the examined taxa, suggesting a combined analysis of these taxa would be most appropriate.
Through novel data and retrospective comparison of available COI and ITS2 DNA sequences, evidence is shown to support the separate species status of An. oswaldoi s.s., An. oswaldoi A and An. oswaldoi B, and at least two species in the closely related An. konderi complex (An. sp. nr. konderi, An. konderi of Sallum). Although An. oswaldoi s.s. has never been implicated in malaria transmission, An. oswaldoi B is a confirmed vector and the new species An. oswaldoi A and An. sp. nr. konderi are circumstantially implicated, most likely acting as secondary vectors.
"Different studies have been made for identification of Anopheles species complexes, which are virtually identical in adult morphology, but exhibit differences in their malaria transmission competence, resting habitats, host preference and insecticide resistance [3,12-14]. In this way, many authors have used molecular and genetic data for evolutionary analysis in a number of Anopheles species (An. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of human and simian malaria parasites in southern and southeastern Brazil. Earlier studies using chromosome inversions, isoenzymes and a number of molecular markers have suggested that An. cruzii is a species complex.
In this study, a multilocus approach using six loci, three circadian clock genes and three encoding ribosomal proteins, was carried out to investigate in more detail the genetic differentiation between the An. cruzii populations from Florianopolis--Santa Catarina (southern Brazil) and Itatiaia--Rio de Janeiro States (southeastern Brazil). The analyses were performed first comparing Florianopolis and Itatiaia, and then comparing the two putative sympatric incipient species from Itatiaia (Itatiaia A and Itatiaia B). The analysis revealed high FST values between Florianopolis and Itatiaia (considering Itatiaia A and B together) and also between the sympatric Itatiaia A and Itatiaia B, irrespective of their function. Also, using the IM program, no strong indication of migration was found between Florianopolis and Itatiaia (considering Itatiaia A and B together) using all loci together, but between Itatiaia A and Itatiaia B, the results show evidence of migration only in the direction of Itatiaia B.
The results of the multilocus analysis indicate that Florianopolis and Itatiaia represent different species of the An. cruzii complex that diverged around 0.6 Mya, and also that the Itatiaia sample is composed of two sympatric incipient species A and B, which diverged around 0.2 Mya. Asymmetric introgression was found between the latter two species despite strong divergence in some loci.
"BRR was calculated by multiplying VCI by appropriate assumptions for the susceptibility of the vector species to infection as determined by membrane feeds and the infective duration of an untreated human case calculated as the reciprocal of the human recovery rate . Susceptibility of An. darlingi was conservatively assumed to be 0.410 for P. falciparum based on published data for membrane-fed An. darlingi caught in Belize  and 0.250 for P. vivax based on published data for membrane-fed An. darlingi caught in the Brazilian Amazon . These susceptibility estimates fall just below the ranges observed in human-fed An. darlingi for P. vivax and in the lower half of the ranges for P. falciparum[21-24]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum cause a significant illness burden in Peru. Anopheline indices for populated communities in the peri-Iquitos region of Loreto have been reported to be remarkably low, with entomological inoculation rates (EIR) estimated at one to 30 infective bites per year based on a few studies in close proximity to the urban centre of Iquitos and surrounding deforested areas. Local reports suggest that a large number of the reported cases are contracted outside of populated communities in undeveloped riverine areas frequented by loggers and fishermen.
To better understand vectorial capacity in suspected high malaria transmission zones in a rural district near Iquitos, Peru, mosquito collections were conducted at different points in the seasonality of malaria transmission in 21 sites frequented by occupational labourers. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp in vectors was determined by circumsporozoite protein ELISA on individual mosquitoes. Slide surveillance was performed for humans encountered in the zone.
In total, of 8,365 adult female mosquitoes examined, 98.5% were identified as Anopheles darlingi and 117 (1.4%) tested positive for sporozoites (P. falciparum, P. vivax VK210 or P. vivax VK247). Measured human biting rates at these sites ranged from 0.102 to 41.13 bites per person per hour, with EIR values as high as 5.3 infective bites per person per night. Six percent of the 284 blood films were positive for P. vivax or P. falciparum; however, 88% of the individuals found to be positive were asymptomatic at the time of sampling.
The results of this study provide key missing indices of prominent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of vectorial capacity in the Amazon Basin of Peru. The identification of a target human subpopulation as a principal reservoir and dispersion source of Plasmodium species has important implications for vaccine development and the delivery of effective targeted malaria control strategies.
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