Comparative susceptibility of two members of the Anopheles oswaldoi complex, An. oswaldoi and An. konderi, to infection by Plasmodium vivax.
ABSTRACT We compared the susceptibility of Anopheles oswaldoi and An. konderi to infection by Plasmodium vivax based on the proportion of mosquitoes presenting oocysts and sporozoites. Anophelines were captured in the State of Acre and Rondônia, Brazilian Amazon, and used to obtain F1 progenies. After emergence of adults, male genitalia of mosquitoes of each family were dissected in order to identify them as either An. oswaldoi or An. konderi. F1 progenies of field-captured An. oswaldoi, An. konderi and An. darlingi (used as control) were fed simultaneously on P. vivax-infected blood. Mosquitoes were dissected on day 10-12 after feeding and examined for the presence of oocysts and sporozoites. Both An. oswaldoi and An. konderi developed oocysts in the midguts, however, the percentage of oocyst-positive mosquitoes for An. oswaldoi (13.8%) was higher than for An. konderi (3.3%), and only An. oswaldoi developed salivary infection with sporozoites (6.9% of positivity). Infection rates in An. darlingi ranged from 22.5% to 30.0% for both oocysts and sporozoites. These results indicate that An. oswaldoi can transmit P. vivax and suggest that it is more susceptible than An. konderi. Although An. oswaldoi is an exophilic and zoophilic species, it may be involved in malaria transmission as possibly occurred in the State of Acre.
- Journal of Medical Entomology 08/1987; 24(4):433-7. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anophelines collected indoors and in the peri-domiciliary area in 3 localities in the Amazon region, state of Acre, Brazil, from August 1990 to January 1991 were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific monoclonal antibodies directed against the repeats of the circumsporozoite proteins of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. vivax V247, and P. malariae. Of the 3056 specimens collected, 2610 were Anopheles oswaldoi, 362 A. deaneorum, 60 A. triannulatus and 24 were A. darlingi. The infection rates of A. oswaldoi were 3.41% for P. falciparum, 2.26% for P. vivax, 1.22 for P. vivax VK247, and 0.42% for P. malariae. For A. deaneorum, the infection rates were 2.76% for P. falciparum, 0.55% for P. vivax, and 0.82% for P. vivax VK247. All samples of the other 2 species collected (A. triannulatus and A. darlingi) were negative in the ELISA. There were certain differences in the anopheline distribution and infection rates between these localities, and in one only A. oswaldoi was found to be infected. These results strongly point to A. oswaldoi as the main malaria vector in the region. No difference was found between the potential vectors of P. vivax and P. vivax VK247. The significance of these findings for malaria control is discussed.Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 01/1993; 87(4):391-4. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An ecoregional approach to the classification of malaria in the neotropics region can give health personnel a new prespective on how to manage malaria control programs. We propose an ecoregional classification based on vector distribution and important environmental determinants, including vegetation type, rainfall patterns, mean temperatures, elevation, and geomorphology. The following 5 ecoregions are described: (1) coastal, (2) piedmont, (3) savanna, (4) interior lowland forest, and (5) high valley. Subregional differences are classified when appropriate. Because human activities and extensive changes in land use usually leads to increased human-vector contact and alter local vector distribution and abundance, it is important that these changes be considered in the classification of vector ecoregions. Using this approach, risk areas can be classified as to the presence and potential abundance of particular vectors. Then, in combination with other components of malaria transmission (e.g., migration, cultural practices, living conditions), areas for surveillance and intervention can be prioritized. It is hoped that this forum will be a catalyst for discussion, future research, and the development of ecologically orientated malaria control programs.Journal of Medical Entomology 10/1997; 34(5):499-510. · 1.86 Impact Factor