Effects of influenza vaccination of health-care workers on mortality of elderly people in long-term care: a randomised controlled trial.

Institute of Virology, University of Glasgow, UK.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 39.21). 02/2000; 355(9198):93-7. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)05190-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vaccination of health-care workers has been claimed to prevent nosocomial influenza infection of elderly patients in long-term care. Data are, however, limited on this strategy. We aimed to find out whether vaccination of health-care workers lowers mortality and the frequency of virologically proven influenza in such patients.
In a parallel-group study, health-care workers in 20 long-term elderly-care hospitals (range 44-105 patients) were randomly offered or not offered influenza vaccine (cluster randomisation, stratified for policy for vaccination of patients and hospital size). All deaths among patients were recorded over 6 months in the winter of 1996-97. We selected a random sample of 50% of patients for virological surveillance for influenza, with combined nasal and throat swabs taken every 2 weeks during the epidemic period. Swabs were tested by tissue culture and PCR for influenza viruses A and B.
Influenza vaccine uptake in health-care workers was 50.9% in hospitals in which they were routinely offered vaccine, compared with 4.9% in those in which they were not. The uncorrected rate of mortality in patients was 102 (13.6%) of 749 in vaccine hospitals compared with 154 (22.4%) of 688 in no-vaccine hospitals (odds ratio 0.58 [95% CI 0.40-0.84], p=0.014). The two groups did not differ for proportions of patients positive for influenza infection (5.4% and 6.7%, respectively); at necropsy, PCR was positive in none of 17 patients from vaccine hospitals and six (20%) of 30 from no-vaccine hospitals (p=0.055).
Vaccination of health-care workers was associated with a substantial decrease in mortality among patients. However, virological surveillance showed no associated decrease in non-fatal influenza infection in patients.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Risk groups with increased vulnerability for influenza complications such as pregnant women, persons with underlying illnesses as well as persons who come into contact with them, such as health care workers, are currently given priority (along with other classic target groups) to receive seasonal influenza vaccination in Belgium. We aimed to evaluate this policy from a health care payer perspective by cost-effectiveness analysis in the three specific target groups above, while accounting for effects beyond the target group. Increasing the coverage of influenza vaccination is likely to be cost-effective for pregnant women (median €6589 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained [€4073-€10,249]) and health care workers (median €24,096/QALY gained [€16,442-€36,342]), if this can be achieved without incurring additional administration costs. Assuming an additional physician's consult is charged to administer each additional vaccine dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women depends strongly on the extent of its impact on the neonate's health. For health care workers, the assumed number of preventable secondary infections has a strong influence on the cost-effectiveness. Vaccinating people with underlying illnesses is likely highly cost-effective above 50 years of age and borderline cost-effective for younger persons, depending on relative life expectancy and vaccine efficacy in this risk group compared to the general population. The case-fatality ratios of the target group, of the secondary affected groups and vaccine efficacy are key sources of uncertainty.
    Vaccine 09/2014; 32(46). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.08.085 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives Influenza vaccination is recommended to all health care professionals (HCPs). However, vaccination rate among HCPs is low and may be due to uncertainty about the effectiveness of the vaccine and fear of its adverse effects. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the awareness, knowledge, and attitude of HCPs towards influenza vaccination and we ascertain reasons for not getting vaccinated. Method A cross-sectional conducted in 6 major hospitals in Saudi Arabia. 245 anonymous questionnaires were distributed to a convenient sample of staff during the 2012–2013 influenza season. The validated questionnaire consists of five sections that collect information about: demographics, attitude towards influenza vaccination, knowledge about influenza virus and vaccination, current practice and awareness of published guidelines. Results 242 completed questionnaires were received, a response rate of 98%. 38% of HCPs reported getting vaccinated. The most common reasons given by HCPs for not getting vaccinated were: fear of contracting illness (16%), belief that they are not at risk from influenza because they are young and healthy (13%) and being unaware of vaccine availability (13%). Non-availability of vaccine (43%) was the highest barrier for not providing vaccine for patients and HCPs followed by safety concerns for the patients (35%) and the respondents (33%). Almost 75% of HCPs were not aware of the influenza immunization guidelines published by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and Centre for Disease Control. Conclusion Despite the recommendations, only low percentage of HCPs in Saudi Arabian hospitals is vaccinated against influenza. The attention of health policy makers is needed to improve compliance of HCPs with guidelines on influenza vaccination.
    Vaccine 09/2014; 32(45). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.08.061 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: O Projeto Diretrizes, iniciativa conjunta da Associação Médica Brasileira e Conselho Federal de Medicina, tem por objetivo conciliar informações da área médica a fim de padronizar condutas que auxiliem o raciocínio e a tomada de decisão do médico.As informações contidas neste projeto devem ser submetidas à avaliação e à crítica do médico, responsável pela conduta a ser seguida, frente à realidade e ao estado clínico de cada paciente.