Protease production by Burkholderia pseudomallei and virulence in mice.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess protease production and virulence of various Burkholderia pseudomallei strains. Protease activity was evaluated in filtrates from cultures grown for 50 h in TSB Dialysate by azocasein hydrolysis, and expressed as absorbancy at 405 nm. Virulence was assessed in 8 weeks old SWISS mice, by intraperitoneal injection of 6-6 x 10(5) CFU, and the LD50 was calculated after 30 days by the method of Reed and Muench. The lethal activity was studied for five strains of B. pseudomallei and the type strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia cepacia. The three type strains appeared to be low protease producers (A405 = 0.11, 0.09 and 0.00, respectively) and avirulent. The two more virulent B. pseudomallei strains exhibited significantly different LD50, 3.5 x 10(2) (IPP 6068 VIR) versus 2.1 x 10(5) CFU/mouse (40/97), and protease activities (A405 = 0.046 and 0.79, respectively). Moreover, the avirulent parent of IPP 6068 (AG), was a better protease producer than the 6068 VIR strain, A405 = 0.26 versus 0.046. These results suggest that there is no correlation between virulence and level of exoproteolytic activity, when B. pseudomallei is injected to mice via the intraperitoneal route.
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ABSTRACT: The environmental saphrophyte Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a systemic, potentially life-threatening condition endemic to many parts of south-east Asia and northern Australia. We have used the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host to characterize the mechanisms by which this bacterium mounts a successful infection. We find that C. elegans is susceptible to a broad range of Burkholderia species, and that the virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen to kill nematodes may be similar to those used to infect mammals. We also find that the specific dynamics of the C. elegans–B. pseudomallei host–pathogen interaction can be highly influenced by environmental factors, and that nematode killing results at least in part from the presence of a diffusible toxin. Finally, by screening for bacterial mutants attenuated in their ability to kill C. elegans, we genetically identify several new potential virulence factors in B. pseudomallei. The use of C. elegans as a model host should greatly facilitate future investigations into how B. pseudomallei can interact with host organisms.Molecular Microbiology 05/2002; 44(5):1185 - 1197. · 5.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Quorum sensing (QS) in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, is mediated by the diffusible signal factor (DSF). DSF-mediating QS has been shown to control virulence and a set of virulence-related functions, however, the expression profiles and functions of extracellular proteins controlled by DSF signal remain largely unclear. In the present study, 33 DSF-regulated extracellular proteins, whose functions include small-protein mediating QS, oxidative adaptation, macromolecule metabolism, cell structure, biosynthesis of small molecules, intermediary metabolism, cellular process, protein catabolism and hypothetical function, were identified by proteomics in Xoc. Of these, 15 protein encoding genes were in-frame deleted, and 4 of them, including three genes encoding type II secretion system (T2SS)-dependent proteins and one gene encoding a Ax21 ( a ctivator of X A 21 -mediated immunity)-like protein (a novel small-protein type QS signal) were determined to be required for full virulence in Xoc. The contributions of these four genes to important virulence-associated functions, including bacterial colonization, extracellular polysaccharide, cell motility, biofilm formation and anti-oxidative ability are presented. To our knowledge, our analysis is the first complete list of DSF-regulated extracellular proteins and functions in a Xanthomonas species. Our results show that DSF-type QS played critical roles in regulation of T2SS and Ax21-mediating QS, which sheds light on the role of DSF signaling in Xanthomonas.Journal of Proteome Research 05/2013; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims: The intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, a major source of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The need to develop novel antimicrobials is compounded by the absence of a licensed vaccine and the bacterium's resistance to multiple antibiotics. In a number of clinically relevant Gram negative pathogens, DsbA is the primary disulfide oxidoreductase responsible for catalysing the formation of disulfide bonds in secreted and membrane associated proteins. In this study, a putative B. pseudomallei dsbA gene was evaluated functionally and structurally and its contribution to infection assessed. Results: Biochemical studies confirmed the dsbA gene encodes a protein disulfide oxidoreductase. A DsbA deletion strain of B. pseudomallei was attenuated in both macrophages and a Balb/C mouse model of infection and displayed pleiotropic phenotypes that included defects in both secretion and motility. The 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of BpsDsbA revealed differences from the classic member of this family E. coli DsbA, in particular within the region surrounding the active site disulfide where EcDsbA engages with its partner protein E. coli DsbB, indicating the interaction of BpsDsbA with its proposed partner BpsDsbB may be distinct from that of EcDsbA-EcDsbB. Innovation: This study has characterized BpsDsbA biochemically and structurally, and determined that it is required for virulence of B. pseudomallei. Conclusion: These data establish a critical role for BpsDbsA in B. pseudomallei infection, which in combination with our structural characterisation of BpsDsbA will facilitate the future development of rationally designed inhibitors against this drug resistant organism.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 07/2013; · 8.20 Impact Factor