Jiang, B.H. , Zheng, J.Z. , Aoki, M. & Vogt, P.K. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling mediates angiogenesis and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 1749-1753

The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 03/2000; 97(4):1749-53. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.040560897
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is a signaling molecule that controls numerous cellular properties and activities. The oncogene v-p3k is a homolog of the gene coding for the catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase, p110alpha. P3k induces transformation of cells in culture, formation of hemangiosarcomas in young chickens, and myogenic differentiation in myoblasts. Here, we describe a role of PI 3-kinase in angiogenesis. Overexpression of the v-P3k protein or of cellular PI 3-kinase equipped with a myristylation signal, Myr-P3k, can induce angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chicken embryo. This process is characterized by extensive sprouting of new blood vessels and enlargement of preexisting vessels. Overexpression of the myristylated form of the PI 3-kinase target Akt, Myr-Akt, also induces angiogenesis. Overexpression of the tumor suppressor PTEN or of dominant-negative constructs of PI 3-kinase inhibits angiogenesis in the yolk sac of chicken embryos, suggesting that PI 3-kinase and Akt signaling is required for normal embryonal angiogenesis. The levels of mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are elevated in cells expressing activated PI 3-kinase or Myr-Akt. VEGF mRNA levels are also increased by insulin treatment through the PI 3-kinase-dependent pathway. VEGF mRNA levels are decreased in cells treated with the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and restored by overexpression of v-P3k or Myr-Akt. Overexpression of VEGF by the RCAS vector induces angiogenesis in chicken embryos. These results suggest that PI 3-kinase plays an important role in angiogenesis and regulates VEGF expression.

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    • "Jiang et al. revealed that PI3K stimulated angiogenesis while overexpression of PTEN repressed the process in the yolk sac of developing chick embryos (Jiang et al., 2000). This implies that PI3K-AKT/PTEN signaling exerts a positive influence on embryonic angiogenesis (Jiang et al., 2000). Nevertheless, the exact role that PTEN plays in vasculogenesis, especially during the blood islands formation process, is still unclear. "
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    ABSTRACT: PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated and/or deleted in many types of tumor. This gene also plays a very distinct role in the early stages of embryonic development such as cell migration, proliferation and migration. Nevertheless, little is known of the function of PTEN in vasculogenesis during chick embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to first demonstrate the expression pattern of PTEN during gastrulation. PTEN was found mainly expressed in the blood islands of area opaca, the neural tube and mesodermal structures. Overexpression of PTEN obstructed the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in the primitive streak. EMT is the first prerequisite required for the emigration of hemangioblasts during vasculogenesis. When PTEN expression was silenced, we observed that it produced an adverse effect on mesodermal cell emigration to the extraembryonic blood islands. In addition, we also demonstrated that even if the perturbed-PTEN cells did not affect the formation of blood islands, migrant mesodermal cells overexpressing wt PTEN-GFP had difficulties integrating into the blood islands. Instead, these cells were either localized on the periphery of the blood islands or induced to differentiate into endothelial cells if they managed to integrate into blood islands. Development of the intra-embryonic primary vascular plexus was also affected by overexpression of PTEN. We proposed that it was elevated PTEN lipid phosphatase activity that was responsible for the morphogenetic defects induced by PTEN overexpression. In this context, we did not find PTEN affecting VEGF signaling. In sum, our study has provided evidence that PTEN is involved in vasculogenesis during the early stages of chick embryo development.
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    • "To determine if the effect of miR-190 on Akt phosphorylation has any downstream effects, an ELISA experiment for the expression of VEGF, a protein whose expression is known to be induced by the activation of Akt (Jiang et al., 2000), was performed. Results from the ELISA show that both As 3þ and miR-190 are able to induce expression of VEGF. "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of trivalent arsenic (As(3+)) on the regulation of the recently identified noncoding small RNAs, mainly microRNAs, has not been explored so far. In the present study, we provide evidence showing that As(3+) is a potent inducer for the expression of miR-190 in human bronchial epithelial cells. The induction of miR-190 by As(3+) is concentration dependent and associated with the expression of the host gene of miR-190, talin 2, a gene encoding a high-molecular-weight cytoskeletal protein. The elevated level of miR-190 induced by As(3+) is capable of downregulating the translation of the PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP), a negative regulator of Akt signaling. Such a downregulation is occurred through direct interaction of the miR-190 with the 3'-UTR region of the PHLPP mRNA, leading to a diminished PHLPP protein expression and consequently, an enhanced Akt activation and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, an Akt-regulated protein. Overexpression of miR-190 itself is able to enhance proliferation and malignant transformation of the cells as determined by anchorage-independent growth of the cells in soft agar. Accordingly, the data presented suggest that induction of miR-190 is one of the key mechanisms in As(3+)-induced carcinogenesis.
    Toxicological Sciences 07/2011; 123(2):411-20. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfr188 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    • "Angiogenesis assay on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) Fertilized chicken eggs were purchased from SPA- FAS (Preston, CT, USA), and incubated at 37°C with 70% humidity. On day 8, an artificial air sac was created and a small window in the shell over the artificial air sac was cut as we described [37] . MCF7-miR-148a or MCF7-miR-SCR stable cells were resuspended in serum-free medium, and mixed with equal volume of Matrigel. "
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in carcinogenesis in various solid cancers including breast cancer. Down-regulation of microRNA-148a (miR-148a) has been reported in certain cancer types. However, the biological role of miR-148a and its related targets in breast cancer are unknown yet. In this study, we showed that the level of miR-148a was lower in MCF7 cells than that in MCF10A cells. V-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (ERBB3) is a direct target of miR-148a in human breast cancer cells through direct binding of miR-148a to ERBB3 3'-UTR region. Overexpression of miR-148a in MCF7 cells inhibited ERBB3 expression, blocked the downstream pathway activation including activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1, and decreased HIF-1α expression. Furthermore, forced expression of miR-148a attenuated tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Our results identify ERBB3 as a direct target of miR-148a, and provide direct evidence that miR-148a inhibits tumor angiogenesis through ERBB3 and its downstream signaling molecules. This information would be helpful for targeting the miR-148a/ERBB3 pathway for breast cancer prevention and treatment in the future.
    05/2011; 25(3):170-7. DOI:10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60022-5
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