Hereditary recurrent focal neuropathies: clinical and molecular features.
ABSTRACT The authors review the molecular genetics and pathophysiology of hereditary recurrent focal neuropathies: hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA). Significant progress in the understanding of HNPP and HNA has been achieved. HNPP and HNA are distinct clinical and pathologic disease entities with autosomal dominant inheritance. Molecular genetic studies have shown that HNPP and HNA are located on chromosome 17 but at distinct genetic loci (17p11.2 for HNPP, 17q25 for HNA). The 1.5 megabase deletion in 17p11.2 is the major cause of HNPP. This interstitial deletion causes the complete loss of one allele of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Interestingly, rare HNPP patients are found without the 1.5 megabase deletion. However, these patients have distinct mutations in the PMP22 gene resulting in altered expression of the PMP22 protein. Current molecular genetic tests and clinical guidelines allow improved diagnosis, prognosis, and genetic counseling for patients with HNPP. Such tests are not available for HNA, because the disease-causing gene remains unknown. Molecular genetic advances in HNPP and HNA, as well as the study of transgenic animal and cellular models, will provide a more precise understanding of the disease mechanisms and will lead to the development of effective therapeutic tools for patients with inherited and sporadic recurrent peripheral neuropathies.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inherited neuropathies known collectively as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease are one of the most common inherited neurological conditions affecting ∼1 in 2500 people. A heterogenous disorder, CMT is divided into subtypes based on the pattern of inheritance and also by neurophysiological studies. Despite the clinical similarities among patients with demyelinating CMT, it is recognized that this group of disorders is both genetically and phenotypically heterogenous. Understanding the pathogenesis of these disorders requires an intimate knowledge of normal myelin development and homeostasis. Improvements in genetic testing techniques over the last 20 years have contributed majorly to the identification of specific genes, proteins, and molecular pathways that are providing the basis for understanding the disease processes and developing rational approaches to therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Neuroscience Letters 01/2015; 596. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2015.01.059 · 2.06 Impact Factor
Neurology 12/2002; 59(11):1823-1823. DOI:10.1212/WNL.59.11.1823 · 8.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PMP22 related neuropathies comprise (1) PMP22 duplications leading to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), (2) PMP22 deletions, leading to Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP), and (3) PMP22 point mutations, causing both phenotypes. Overall prevalence of CMT is usually reported as 1:2,500, epidemiological studies show that 20-64% of CMT patients carry the PMP22 duplication. The prevalence of HNPP is not well known. CMT1A usually presents in the first two decades with difficulty walking or running. Distal symmetrical muscle weakness and wasting and sensory loss is present, legs more frequently and more severely affected than arms. HNPP typically leads to episodic, painless, recurrent, focal motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy, preceded by minor compression on the affected nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation is needed to determine whether the polyneuropathy is demyelinating. Sonography of the nerves can be useful. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding respectively a PMP22 duplication, deletion or point mutation. Differential diagnosis includes other inherited neuropathies, and acquired polyneuropathies. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant and de novo mutations occur. Offspring of patients have a chance of 50% to inherit the mutation from their affected parent. Prenatal testing is possible; requests for prenatal testing are not common. Treatment is currently symptomatic and may include management by a rehabilitation physician, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and orthopaedic surgeon. Adult CMT1A patients show slow clinical progression of disease, which seems to reflect a process of normal ageing. Life expectancy is normal.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 03/2014; 9(1):38. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-9-38 · 3.96 Impact Factor