Vaccination of neonatal colostrum-deprived calves against Pasteurella haemolytica A1.
ABSTRACT Colostrum-deprived Holstein calves were vaccinated at 2 and 4 wk of age with a Pasteurella haemolytica A1 culture supernatant vaccine to determine whether active immune responses and protection could be induced in this age group in the absence of maternal antibodies. All calves responded to vaccination with high titers of IgM antibodies to capsular polysaccharide within 1 wk of primary vaccination. Mean titers of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies to this antigen increased significantly by 2 wk after secondary vaccination, but peak antibody titers were low. All of the vaccinated calves seroconverted with production of leukotoxin-neutralizing antibodies, but peak antibody titers were low. Vaccinated calves experienced considerable lung damage after experimental challenge, but survival rate, clinical scores, and percent lung involvement were significantly better than those of control (placebo-injected) calves.
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ABSTRACT: No review of the topic of swinging has been done in the last 20 years. This review is intended to update the literature. Studies estimating the incidence of swinging, the demographic and personality characteristics of swingers, along with how swingers are perceived by nonswingers are reviewed. Numerous theories explaining this behavior have been presented with a social psychological model being the primary focus here. Major reasons for getting involved in swinging, initiation into the lifestyle, effects on marriage, and dropping out of swinging are also covered. Finally, the literature dealing with some of the major problems with swinging, focusing on AIDS, are also discussed, along with the current state of swinging and suggestions for future research.Archives of Sexual Behavior 11/1998; 27(5):507-21. · 3.53 Impact Factor
Article: Serum antibody response to carbohydrate antigens of Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1: relation to experimentally induced bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The antibody responses to the capsular carbohydrate (CC) purified from Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 were determined by an ELISA, using 135 sera from 6 calves vaccinated with phosphate-buffered saline solution, formalin-killed P haemolytica bacterins, live P haemolytica, or an extract of P haemolytica referred to as carbohydrate-protein subunit (CPS). Calves vaccinated with live P haemolytica, bacterins, or CPS developed serum antibodies to CC. Bacterins containing Freund incomplete adjuvant or Freund complete adjuvant induced higher antibody responses than did bacterins containing aluminum hydroxide. In 4 of 6 experiments, high antibody responses to CC were significantly (P less than 0.05) correlated with resistance to transthoracic challenge exposure with P haemolytica. When calves were challenge exposed with a dose of P haemolytica that was 4.5 times greater than the standard challenge exposure dose or when calves that had been vaccinated with CPS were challenge exposed, antibody responses did not significantly (P greater than 0.05) correlate with resistance to challenge exposure. The amount of serum antibodies to CPS increased significantly (P less than 0.05) when calves were vaccinated with live or killed P haemolytica or with CPS, compared with that in calves given saline solution. In 5 of 6 experiments, correlation between high antibody responses and resistance to challenge exposure was significant (P less than 0.05). The correlation between those variables was not significant (P less than 0.07) for CPS-vaccinated calves. In the ELISA, treatment of CPS with sodium m-periodate, to oxidize periodate-sensitive carbohydrate epitopes, failed to markedly alter the antibody response to CPS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)American Journal of Veterinary Research 02/1989; 50(1):98-105. · 1.27 Impact Factor