The natural history of ulcerative proctitis: a multicenter, retrospective study. Gruppo di Studio per le Malattie Infiammatorie Intestinali (GSMII).
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the long term evolution of patients with a well defined initial diagnosis of ulcerative proctitis.
Patients with an original diagnosis of ulcerative proctitis who had been seen at any of 13 institutions from 1989 to 1994 were identified. Data on disease onset and subsequent evolution were recorded. In addition, 575 patients with more extensive disease, treated in the same centers, were used as controls.
A total of 341 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The percentage of smokers in these patients was slightly lower than in controls; no differences were found in the other clinical/demographic variables evaluated. A total of 273 patients entered long term follow-up (mean, 52 months). Proximal extension of the disease occurred in 74 of them (27.1%). The cumulative rate of proximal extension and of extension beyond the splenic flexure was 20% and 4% at 5 yr and 54% and 10% at 10 yr, respectively. The risk of proximal extension was higher in nonsmokers, in patients with >3 relapses/yr, and in patients needing systemic steroid or immunosuppressive treatment. Refractory disease was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor at multivariate analysis.
Proximal extension of ulcerative proctitis is frequent and may occur even late after the original diagnosis. However, the risk of extension beyond the splenic flexure appears to be quite low. Smoking seems to be a protective factor against proximal extension, whereas refractoriness is a risk factor for proximal extension of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Ulcerative colitis usually involves the rectum, may extend in a proximal and continuous fashion to involve varying portions of the bowel. However, the risk factors predictive of proximal extension have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the natural course of disease and the risk factors influencing the proximal disease extension in ulcerative proctitis. Material and methods. We retrospectively analyzed 98 patients with ulcerative proctitis at the time of diagnosis who were regularly followed and underwent sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy between January 2000 and December 2007. Results. The mean duration of follow-up was 109.2 ± 49.5 months. A total of 27 (27.6%) patients experienced proximal disease extension. Mayo scores were significantly higher in the extension group compared with patients whose ulcerative proctitis did not extend proximally (p < 0.001). Corticosteroid use at initial diagnosis was also more frequent in the extension group (p = 0.026). In addition, chronic, continuous disease activation within 6 months of the initial diagnosis was significantly higher in the extension group (p < 0.001), as was disease relapse and the number of hospitalizations over the entire follow-up period (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002). According to multivariate analysis, disease extension after the initial diagnosis was associated with chronic disease activation, disease relapse and hospitalization (p = 0.030, p = 0.042 and p = 0.044, respectively). Conclusion. Increased severity of disease upon diagnosis of ulcerative proctitis was associated with a higher probability of proximal disease extension during the follow-up period. Moreover, those with disease extension were more likely to experience relapse and to be hospitalized, indicating poor prognosis.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2013; 49(2). DOI:10.3109/00365521.2013.867360 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease. Psychological factors such as depression and stress are under debate to contribute to the risk of relapse. The impact of mucosal healing to reduce the risk of relapse had not been studied prospectively. The aim of this study was to identify whether depression and stress increase and mucosal healing reduces the risk of clinical relapse in patients with UC in clinical remission. Patients in clinical remission were followed prospectively for 1 year, or less if they relapsed. Endoscopy and histology score and long-term perceived stress (Perceived Stress Questionnaire) were measured at baseline. Mucosal healing was defined by a Mayo Endoscopy score of 0-1. Depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and acute perceived stress (Cohen Perceived Stress Scale) were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. A time-dependent multivariate Cox regression model determined the predictors of time to relapse. Seventy-five patients were included into final analysis, of which 28 (37.3%) relapsed. Short-term stress at the last visit before relapse (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.10) and male gender (HR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.01-5.61), but not baseline mucosal healing (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.35-2.11), baseline long-term stress (HR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01-3.31), and depression at the last visit before relapse (HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.95-1.22) were predictive for a relapse. Short-term stress but not depression nor mucosal healing was predictive for the risk of relapse in patients with UC in clinical remission. Larger multicentre studies are necessary to confirm our findings.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 08/2013; DOI:10.1097/MIB.0b013e3182a192ba · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC) presents as proctitis in approximately a quarter of the patients. It may progress into left-sided or extensive colitis in up to 50% of cases upon long-term follow-up. Areas covered: Currently available data on ulcerative proctitis are summarized and critically reviewed. Extensive literature search (MEDLINE) was performed to identify relevant articles up to March 2014. Expert opinion: The short-term goal of the treatment in UC is to induce remission, whereas long-term goals are to maintain remission and prevent disease progression. Topically administered 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA) and corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of proctitis, although they seem to be underused in everyday practice. Locally administered 5-ASA preparations are more effective than oral compounds. The combination of topical and oral 5-ASA and steroids should be considered for escalation of treatment. Refractory patients should be re-evaluated to exclude for compliance failures, infections or proximal disease extent. True refractory or steroid-dependent patients may require immunomodulators or biological therapy. Alternative medicine can be used complementarily, while experimental approaches are reserved for patients failing conventional medication. Proctocolectomy may be the last resort of treatment. Upon long-term, 5-ASA maintenance treatment is indicated in all UC cases to prevent relapse and disease progression.Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 05/2014; DOI:10.1517/14656566.2014.920322 · 3.09 Impact Factor