The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the long term evolution of patients with a well defined initial diagnosis of ulcerative proctitis.
Patients with an original diagnosis of ulcerative proctitis who had been seen at any of 13 institutions from 1989 to 1994 were identified. Data on disease onset and subsequent evolution were recorded. In addition, 575 patients with more extensive disease, treated in the same centers, were used as controls.
A total of 341 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The percentage of smokers in these patients was slightly lower than in controls; no differences were found in the other clinical/demographic variables evaluated. A total of 273 patients entered long term follow-up (mean, 52 months). Proximal extension of the disease occurred in 74 of them (27.1%). The cumulative rate of proximal extension and of extension beyond the splenic flexure was 20% and 4% at 5 yr and 54% and 10% at 10 yr, respectively. The risk of proximal extension was higher in nonsmokers, in patients with >3 relapses/yr, and in patients needing systemic steroid or immunosuppressive treatment. Refractory disease was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor at multivariate analysis.
Proximal extension of ulcerative proctitis is frequent and may occur even late after the original diagnosis. However, the risk of extension beyond the splenic flexure appears to be quite low. Smoking seems to be a protective factor against proximal extension, whereas refractoriness is a risk factor for proximal extension of the disease.
"In clinical practice, suppositories or enema therapy are administered for lesions limited to the rectum or left-side colitis, whereas oral medication is administered in combination with transanal treatment when lesions invaded the right colon.10,11 However, the extent of lesions in IBD does not remain fixed, but can be reduced or expanded during the treatment period.25 In a long term follow-up study of approximately 25 years, 53% of ulcerative colitis cases that were initially limited to the rectum progressed into the sigmoid colon.26 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colonoscopy plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Practitioners should be well informed of the colonoscopic findings of IBD to prevent the misdiagnosis, overtreatment or delayed treatment. Distinguishing between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is essential in terms of pharmacological treatment, surgical decision-making, and prognosis. But there are still lesions with difficulty in differentiation that approximately 10% of the patients fall into the category of indeterminate colitis. Efforts are needed to carefully select treatment approach appropriate for each patient by providing a precise diagnosis on the extent and degree of lesions as well as to accurately delineate the lesions to assure that they are compared in subsequent rounds of follow-up monitoring in order to allow redetermination and adjustment of the treatment.
"Extensive colitis at the time of diagnosis is confirmed to be a strong predictor of colectomy [30,31], even after adjustment for other known risk factors. The risk associated with proctitis at diagnosis was initially low but it increased over time confirming that proctitis at presentation is likely to progress toward extensive involvement of the colon already within the first 5 years from diagnosis . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Today we are observing an increasing incidence of ulcerative colitis associated with an improved survival of patients.
To analyse current rates, outcomes, and costs of inpatient care for ulcerative colitis patients of central Italy.
The cohort included 644 ulcerative colitis patients, living in the Lazio region, with diagnosis made or confirmed by the staff of a single tertiary referral centre in Rome (1997-2006). Follow-up data on hospitalization rates, costs, and colectomy rates were collected from the Regional Hospital Information System.
Overall hospitalization rates were 3 times higher than those of the region's general population, reflecting excess admissions for digestive or infectious diseases (standardized hospitalizations rates for digestive-tract: 15.9; for infectious diseases: 3.5). The overall cumulative risk for colectomy was 7.5%. On the average, hospitalizations for ulcerative colitis lasted 10 days. The mean reimbursement for a ulcerative colitis-related hospitalization was EUR 5120 (€4609 for nonsurgical admissions, €8655 for surgical hospitalizations).
Ulcerative colitis patients are 3 times more likely to be hospitalized than the general population. Colectomy rates in Italian ulcerative colitis patients resemble those of northern Europe, but most hospital admissions are for diagnostic procedures or medical therapy. Hospitalizations are almost twice as long as those reported in the United States although their mean cost is considerably lower.
"Our results fit well with those previously reported, however only 19 patients with proctitis at diagnosis were available for follow-up at 10 years after diagnosis. We found that the risk of progression was higher in non-smokers, a finding previously confirmed by some [18,20] but not all authors . There are several possible explanations for these conflicting results. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of Crohn's disease patients with B1 phenotype at diagnosis (i.e. non-stricturing non-penetrating disease) will develop over time a stricturing or a penetrating pattern. Conflicting data exist on the rate of proximal disease extension in ulcerative colitis patients with proctitis or left-sided colitis at diagnosis. We aimed to study disease evolution in Crohn's disease B1 patients and ulcerative colitis patients with proctitis and left-sided colitis at diagnosis.
116 Crohn's disease and 256 ulcerative colitis patients were followed-up for at least 5 years after diagnosis. Crohn's disease patients were classified according to the Vienna criteria. Data were analysed actuarially.
B1 phenotype accounted for 68.9% of Crohn's disease patients at diagnosis. The cumulative probability of change in disease behaviour in B1 patients was 43.6% at 10 years after diagnosis. Active smoking (Hazard Ratio: 3.01) and non-colonic disease (non-L2) (Hazard Ratio: 3.01) were associated with behavioural change in B1 patients. Proctitis and left-sided colitis accounted for 24.2%, and 48.4% of ulcerative colitis patients at diagnosis. The 10 year cumulative probability of proximal disease extension in patients with proctitis and left-sided colitis was 36.8%, and 17.1%, respectively (p: 0.003). Among proctitis patients, proximal extension was more common in non-smokers (Hazard Ratio: 4.39).
Classification of Crohn's disease patients in B1 phenotype should be considered as temporary. Smoking and non-colonic disease are risk factors for behavioural change in B1 Crohn's disease patients. Proximal extension is more common in ulcerative colitis patients with proctitis than in those with left-sided colitis. Among proctitis patients, proximal extension is more common in non-smokers.
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