Delay in tuberculosis case-finding and treatment in Mwanza, Tanzania.
ABSTRACT Health facilities in Mwanza region, Tanzania.
To determine factors responsible for delay from onset of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis to initiation of treatment.
A cross-sectional descriptive study of 296 smear-positive tuberculosis patients. Emphasis was given to periods between 1) onset of symptoms and first consultation to a health facility, and 2) reporting to a health facility and initiation of treatment.
Mean total delay was 185 days (median 136), with nearly 90% of this being patient's delay. The mean health system delay was 23 days (median 15), with longer delays in rural health facilities. The mean patient's delay was 162 days (median 120). This delay was significantly longer in rural areas, for patients with lower level of education, for those who first visited a traditional healer, and for patients who had no information on tuberculosis prior to diagnosis. Only 15% of the patients reported to a health facility within 30 days of onset of symptoms.
There are significant delays in case-finding in Mwanza, Tanzania, with prolonged patient's delay. Facilitation of utilisation of health services, raising awareness of the disease and incorporation of private practice into tuberculosis control could help to reduce these delays.
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ABSTRACT: TB is a major public health problem globally and Ethiopia is 8th among the 22 high burden countries. Early detection and effective treatment are pre-requisites for a successful TB control programme. In this regard, early health seeking action from patients' side and prompt diagnosis as well as initiation of treatment from the health system's side are essential steps. The aim of this study was to assess delay in the diagnosis and treatment of TB in a predominantly pastoralist area in Ethiopia. On a cross-sectional study, two hundred sixteen TB patients who visited DOTS clinics of two health facilities in Afar Region were included consecutively. Time from onset of symptoms till first consultation of formal health providers (patients' delay) and time from first consultation till initiation of treatment (health system's delay) were analyzed. The median patients' and health system's delay were 20 and 33.5 days, respectively. The median total delay was 70.5 days with a median treatment delay of 1 day. On multivariate logistic regression, self-treatment (aOR. 3.99, CI 1.50-10.59) and first visit to non-formal health providers (aOR. 6.18, CI 1.84-20.76) were observed to be independent predictors of patients' delay. On the other hand, having extra-pulmonary TB (aOR. 2.08, CI 1.08- 4.04), and a first visit to health posts/clinics (aOR. 19.70, CI 6.18-62.79), health centres (aOR. 4.83, CI 2.23-10.43) and private health facilities (aOR. 2.49, CI 1.07-5.84) were found to be independent predictors of health system's delay. There is a long delay in the diagnosis and initiation of treatment and this was mainly attributable to the health system. Health system strengthening towards improved diagnosis of TB could reduce the long health system's delay in the management of TB in the study area.BMC Public Health 05/2012; 12:369. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the factors responsible for patient delay and treatment delay in newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Study subjects (N = 150) were randomly selected from municipal health centers in Mumbai, India. Duration of symptoms, treatment, and reason for delay were assessed using interviews and medical records. We defined patient delay as presentation to a health care provider (HCP) >20 days of the onset of TB-related symptoms and treatment delay as therapy initiated more than 14 days after the first consultation (for TB-related symptoms) with an HCP. Of the 150 subjects, 29% had patient delays and 81% had treatment delays. In multivariable analysis, patient delay was significantly associated with the self-perception that initial symptoms were due to TB [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-12.6] and perceived inability to pay for care (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-7.1). Treatment delay was significantly associated with consulting a non-allopathic provider (OR = 12.3, 95% CI = 1.4-105) and consulting >3 providers (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 1.4-17.4). Patient interval was half the treatment interval (median days: 15 vs. 31). Women were slightly more likely to experience patient and treatment delays than men. For two-thirds of the patients, another TB patient was a source of TB-related knowledge, while health education material (16%) and television (10%) played a smaller role. Treatment delay, primarily due to diagnosis delay, was a greater problem than patient delay. Expanding public-public and public-private partnerships and regular training sessions for HCPs might decrease treatment delay. Media coverage and cured TB patients as peer advocates may help to reinforce TB-related health education messages.International journal of preventive medicine 08/2012; 3(8):569-80.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a great challenge to public health in sub-Saharan Africa. Most transmissions occur between the onset of coughing and initiation of treatment. Delay in diagnosis is significant to disease prognosis, thus early diagnosis and prompt effective therapy represent the key elements in controlling the disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the patient delay and the health system delay in TB diagnosis in Angola. METHODS: On a cross-sectional study, 385 TB patients who visited 21 DOTS clinics in Luanda were included consecutively. The time from the onset of symptoms to the first consultation of health providers (patients' delay) and the time from the first consultation to the date of diagnosis (health system's delay) were analysed. Bivariate and logistics regression were applied to analyse the risk factors of delays. RESULTS: The median total time elapsed from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 45 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 21--97 days). The median patient delay was 30 days (IQR: 14--60 days), and the median health care system delay was 7 days (IQR: 5--15 days). Primary education (AOR = 1.75; CI [95%] 1.06--2.88; p <0.029) and the health centre of the first contact differing from the DOTS centre (AOR = 1.66; CI [95%] 1.01--2.75; p <0.046) were independent risk factors for patient delay >4 weeks. Living in a suburban area (AOR = 2,32; CI [95%] 1.21--4.46; p = 0.011), having a waiting time in the centre >1 hour (AOR = 4.37; CI [95%] 1.72--11.14; p = 0.002) and the health centre of the first contact differening from the DOTS centre (AOR = 5.68; CI [95%] 2.72--11,83; p < 0,00001) were factors influencing the system delay. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the delay is principally due to the time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the first consultation. More efforts should be placed in ensuring the availability of essential resources and skills in all healthcare facilities other than the DOTS centres, especially those located in suburban areas.BMC Infectious Diseases 04/2013; 13(1):168. · 3.03 Impact Factor