This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Condom Campaign, a 1995 HIV prevention program promoting condom use among sexually active adolescents in three King County, Washington, urban communities. This program employed three main strategies: (a) mobilizing all levels of the target communities to support and guide program development and implementation; (b) creating and implementing a mass media campaign targeting sexually active teenagers that promoted correct condom use and favorable attitudes toward condoms; and (c) recruiting public agencies, community organizations, and businesses to distribute condoms from bins and vending machines. We evaluated the program through a series of cross-sectional interviews conducted in the three communities chosen for their elevated levels of adolescent sexual risk behavior. Overall, 73% of target youth reported exposure to the Condom Campaign; exposure did not differ by age, gender, race, or level of sexual experience. Levels of sexual activity remained stable throughout the media campaign.
"In public health, information campaigns have been used to promote safer sexual practices (Alstead et al., 1999), regular monitoring of health (Fender et al., 1999; Black et al., 2002), cessation of smoking (Siegel and Beiner, 2000; Farrelly et al., 2002), and reduction in transmission of infectious diseases (Preston, 1996). Nutrition labels on food products aim to motivate appropriate choice in one's diet (some relatively recent examples are Harnack and French, 2008; Downs et al., 2009; Wisdom et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A national campaign of well testing through 2003 enabled households in rural Bangladesh to switch, at least for drinking, from high-arsenic wells to neighboring lower-arsenic wells. We study the well-switching dynamics over time by re-interviewing, in 2008, a randomly selected subset of households in the Araihazar region who had been interviewed in 2005. Contrary to concerns that the impact of arsenic information on switching behavior would erode over time, we find that not only was 2003-2005 switching highly persistent but also new switching by 2008 doubled the share of households at unsafe wells who had switched. The passage of time also had a cost: 22% of households did not recall test results by 2008. The loss of arsenic knowledge led to staying at unsafe wells and switching from safe wells. Our results support ongoing well testing for arsenic to reinforce this beneficial information.
Environment and Development Economics 12/2013; 19(05):1-17. DOI:10.1017/S1355770X13000612 · 0.67 Impact Factor
"Given that policy makers and communities continue to be challenged to provide youth with sexual health and sexualityrelated information within the context of schools, health promotion professionals must also consider the manner in which other community entities can support the sexual health of the nation's youth. Community-based organizations (CBOs), such as Planned Parenthood, have a well-documented history of promoting sexual health and addressing sexuality-related information needs of the communities that they serve (Alstead et al., 1999; Hamdallah, Vargo, & Herrera, 2006; Itzhaky & York, 2001; Kramer et al., 2005; Okwumabua, Glover, Bolden, & Edwards, 2001; Oliva, Rienks, Udoh, & Smith, 2005; Smith & Bride, 2004). However, the focus of these organizations has typically been on adult populations . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many scholars and practitioners have advocated for a more ecological approach to sexual health promotion for adolescents, such as one that includes involvement from schools, parents, and community organizations. Although extensive research has been conducted with schools and parents, little is known about the roles community-based organizations (CBOs) may play in the education and promotion of sexual health to young people. This study aimed to (a) identify the types of sexual health and sexuality-related questions asked by youth and programming/services, resources, and referrals currently being provided by CBOs; (b) explore the approaches used by CBOs when developing and implementing sexual health promotion programs; and (c) compare these findings with those from a similar study on school teachers, counselors, and nurses within the same state. Data collected from 169 people working in CBOs indicate that a wide variety of topics were covered by CBOs through programming and services, resources, and/or referral protocols. Topics covered varied in frequency. Overall, participants indicated a relatively comprehensive and accessible approach to providing sexuality information to youth. The results of this study suggest that CBOs should be included in the range of sources to be used for comprehensive sexual health promotion. If such organizations are supported with information, training, and resources, they could play a valuable role in the promotion of sexual health for adolescents.
Health Promotion Practice 07/2011; 13(4):544-52. DOI:10.1177/1524839910390359 · 0.55 Impact Factor
"We identified 21 SLCDIs (Fig. 1; Table 2) [18–35]. Two-thirds of the studies were conducted in international settings (k = 14) [24–35], including 5 in Africa (2 in Tanzania, 2 in Cameroon, 1 in Ghana), 4 in East & Southeast Asia (2 in China, 1 in Indonesia, 1 in Thailand), 2 each in the Caribbean and Mexico, and 1 in Central America. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This systematic review examines the overall efficacy of U.S. and international-based structural-level condom distribution interventions (SLCDIs) on HIV risk behaviors and STIs and identifies factors associated with intervention efficacy. A comprehensive literature search of studies published from January 1988 through September 2007 yielded 21 relevant studies. Significant intervention effects were found for the following outcomes: condom use, condom acquisition/condom carrying, delayed sexual initiation among youth, and reduced incident STIs. The stratified analyses for condom use indicated that interventions were efficacious for various groups (e.g., youth, adults, males, commercial sex workers, clinic populations, and populations in areas with high STI incidence). Interventions increasing the availability of or accessibility to condoms or including additional individual, small-group or community-level components along with condom distribution were shown to be efficacious in increasing condom use behaviors. This review suggests that SLCDIs provide an efficacious means of HIV/STI prevention.
AIDS and Behavior 10/2010; 15(7):1283-97. DOI:10.1007/s10461-010-9812-y · 3.49 Impact Factor
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