Developing, implementing, and evaluating a condom promotion program targeting sexually active adolescents.

Public Health-Seattle & King County HIV/AIDS Program, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.
AIDS Education and Prevention (Impact Factor: 1.59). 01/2000; 11(6):497-512.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Condom Campaign, a 1995 HIV prevention program promoting condom use among sexually active adolescents in three King County, Washington, urban communities. This program employed three main strategies: (a) mobilizing all levels of the target communities to support and guide program development and implementation; (b) creating and implementing a mass media campaign targeting sexually active teenagers that promoted correct condom use and favorable attitudes toward condoms; and (c) recruiting public agencies, community organizations, and businesses to distribute condoms from bins and vending machines. We evaluated the program through a series of cross-sectional interviews conducted in the three communities chosen for their elevated levels of adolescent sexual risk behavior. Overall, 73% of target youth reported exposure to the Condom Campaign; exposure did not differ by age, gender, race, or level of sexual experience. Levels of sexual activity remained stable throughout the media campaign.

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    ABSTRACT: Context The objective of this systematic review was to determine the costs, benefits, and overall economic value of communication campaigns that included mass media and distribution of specified health-related products at reduced price or free of charge. Evidence acquisition Economic evaluation studies from a literature search from January 1980 to December 2009 were screened and abstracted following systematic economic review methods developed by The Community Guide. Data were analyzed in 2011. Evidence synthesis The economic evidence was grouped and assessed by type of product distributed and health risk addressed. A total of 15 evaluation studies were included in the economic review, involving campaigns promoting the use of child car seats or booster seats, pedometers, condoms, recreational safety helmets, and nicotine replacement therapy. Conclusions Economic merits of the intervention could not be determined for health communication campaigns associated with use of recreational helmets, child car seats, and pedometers, primarily because available economic information and analyses were incomplete. There is some evidence that campaigns with free condom distribution to promote safer sex practices were cost-effective among high-risk populations and the cost per quit achieved in campaigns promoting tobacco cessation with nicotine replacement therapy products may translate to a cost per quality-adjusted life-year less than $50,000. Many interventions were publicly funded trials or programs, and the failure to properly evaluate their economic cost and benefit is a serious gap in the science and practice of public health.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine 09/2014; 47(3):348–359. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.05.031 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. The purpose was to synthesize evaluations of HIV interventions with at least one media component (including media campaigns and social marketing) to assess the conditions under which condom use improved. Methods. A literature search produced 80 studies that met the criteria for inclusion, including use of media, assessments before and after the intervention, and sufficient statistical information to calculate an effect size for at least one outcome. Results. Overall, media interventions successfully promoted condom use, particularly in nations with a low human development index. Interventions that included both mass media and interpersonal channels (e.g., counseling, peer outreach, small groups) were much more successful (d+=0.45, 95% CI=0.42, 0.48) than campaigns using only mass media (d+=0.27, 95% CI=0.24, 0.31),or interpersonal interventions with a small media component (e.g. video, brochure, poster(d+=0.29, 95% CI=0.27, 0.32). All were equally effect, however, when the samples used in the evaluation were sexually active. Interventions worked better when combined with condom distribution and abstinence was not an intervention goal. Interventions were not successful in reducing the number of sexual partners. Conclusions. Media interventions should be an important part of HIV prevention strategies, given their effectiveness, reach, and ability to reduce global health disparities.
    137st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2009; 11/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Health communication campaigns including mass media and health-related product distribution have been used to reduce mortality and morbidity through behavior change. The intervention is defined as having two core components reflecting two social marketing principles: (1) promoting behavior change through multiple communication channels, one being mass media, and (2) distributing a free or reduced-price product that facilitates adoption and maintenance of healthy behavior change, sustains cessation of harmful behaviors, or protects against behavior-related disease or injury. Evidence acquisitionUsing methods previously developed for the Community Guide, a systematic review (search period, January 1980–December 2009) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of health communication campaigns that use multiple channels, including mass media, and distribute health-related products. The primary outcome of interest was use of distributed health-related products. Evidence synthesisTwenty-two studies that met Community Guide quality criteria were analyzed in 2010. Most studies showed favorable behavior change effects on health-related product use (a median increase of 8.4 percentage points). By product category, median increases in desired behaviors ranged from 4.0 percentage points for condom promotion and distribution campaigns to 10.0 percentage points for smoking-cessation campaigns. ConclusionsHealth communication campaigns that combine mass media and other communication channels with distribution of free or reduced-price health-related products are effective in improving healthy behaviors. This intervention is expected to be applicable across U.S. demographic groups, with appropriate population targeting. The ability to draw more specific conclusions about other important social marketing practices is constrained by limited reporting of intervention components and characteristics.
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