Alterations in shoulder kinematics and associated muscle activity in people with symptoms of shoulder impingement.
ABSTRACT Treatment of patients with impingement symptoms commonly includes exercises intended to restore "normal" movement patterns. Evidence that indicates the existence of abnormal patterns in people with shoulder pain is limited. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze glenohumeral and scapulothoracic kinematics and associated scapulothoracic muscle activity in a group of subjects with symptoms of shoulder impingement relative to a group of subjects without symptoms of shoulder impingement matched for occupational exposure to overhead work.
Fifty-two subjects were recruited from a population of construction workers with routine exposure to overhead work.
Surface electromyographic data were collected from the upper and lower parts of the trapezius muscle and from the serratus anterior muscle. Electromagnetic sensors simultaneously tracked 3-dimensional motion of the trunk, scapula, and humerus during humeral elevation in the scapular plane in 3 handheld load conditions: (1) no load, (2) 2. 3-kg load, and (3) 4.6-kg load. An analysis of variance model was used to test for group and load effects for 3 phases of motion (31(-60(, 61(-90(, and 91(-120().
Relative to the group without impingement, the group with impingement showed decreased scapular upward rotation at the end of the first of the 3 phases of interest, increased anterior tipping at the end of the third phase of interest, and increased scapular medial rotation under the load conditions. At the same time, upper and lower trapezius muscle electromyographic activity increased in the group with impingement as compared with the group without impingement in the final 2 phases, although the upper trapezius muscle changes were apparent only during the 4.6-kg load condition. The serratus anterior muscle demonstrated decreased activity in the group with impingement across all loads and phases.
Scapular tipping (rotation about a medial to lateral axis) and serratus anterior muscle function are important to consider in the rehabilitation of patients with symptoms of shoulder impingement related to occupational exposure to overhead work. [Ludewig PM, Cook TM. Alterations in shoulder kinematics and associated muscle activity in people with symptoms of shoulder impingement.
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ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of a photographic measurement of the sagittal postures of the cervical spine and shoulder, quantitatively characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulders in the sagittal plane of Portuguese adolescents 15 to 17 years old in natural erect standing, and analyze differences in postural angles between sexes.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 secondary schools in Portugal where 275 adolescent students (146 females and 129 males) aged 15 to 17 years were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and the Postural Assessment Software.ResultsFor interrater reliability, all of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for the 3 angles were higher than 0.85. For intrarater reliability, the ICC values for the sagittal head angle, shoulder angle, and cervical angle were 0.83, 0.78, and 0.66, respectively. Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2° ± 5.7°, 47.4° ± 5.2°, and 51.4° ± 8.5°, respectively. Anterior head carriage was demonstrated by 68% of the adolescents, whereas 58% had protraction of the shoulder(s). Males had significantly higher mean cervical and sagittal head angles.Conclusions Forward head posture and protracted shoulders were common postural disorders in adolescents 15 to 17 years old, with females revealing a lower mean cervical angle. The intrarater and interrater evaluation of standing sagittal posture of the cervical spine and shoulders by photogrammetry was reliable.Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 11/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Electromagnetic systems for motion analysis are claimed as a precise technique for tracking position and orientation of human body segments. To date, reliability electromagnetic tracking was described only for the dynamic assessment of the scapula motion, and no reliability studies on its resting posture or positioning were found. The aim of this study was to analyze intra- and inter-session reliabilities and absolute errors of the scapular orientation and position at habitual resting posture in healthy individuals. Twenty-two shoulder symptom-free individuals non participants in professional or recreational sports activities involving upper extremities were volunteers in this study. The equipment used was 3SPACE Liberty system (Polhemus Inc.). The same examiner collected the kinematic data from subjects in two different sessions, with an interval from seven to ten days. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC2,1 and ICC2, k) and Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) were calculated. Inter-session reliability ranged from good to excellent (ICC from 0.66 to 0.96) and intra-session reliability was excellent (ICC ≥ 0.97). SEM values found for linear distances were smaller than 0.02 cm and scapular rotations ranged from 0.72° to 5.48°. Results of this study demonstrated that electromagnetic data acquisition of scapula habitual posture is a reliable tool for defining scapular position and orientation in sedentary shoulder symptom-free individuals.Brazilian Journal of Kinanthropometry and Human Performance. 11/2014; 16(6):689.
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ABSTRACT: Background: There are various methods for rehabilitating round-shoulder posture (RSP), including strengthening exercises, stretching, and using a shoulder brace or taping to correct the altered posture. However, no study has determined which intervention is the most effective of the three methods to decrease RSP (intervention #1: scapular posterior tilting exercise alone [hereafter, SPT], intervention #2: the scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching [PM stretch+SPT], and intervention #3: the scapular posterior tilting exercise with use of a shoulder brace [SPT+brace]). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the SPT, PM stretch+SPT, and SPT+brace on RSP, PM index (PMI), and lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) activity in subjects with RSP. Methods: In total, fifteen young men with RSP, participated in the study (21.46±2.30years old). RSP was confirmed using a caliper measure. Surface electromyography (SEMG) data for LT and SA activity were collected during the three interventions, and the SEMG data are expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). Results: RSP was significantly less in the PM stretch+SPT and SPT+brace than in the SPT (P<0.05). PMI was significantly greater in the PM stretch+SPT and SPT+brace than in the SPT (P<0.05). LT activity was significantly greater in the PM stretch+SPT than in the SPT or SPT+brace in subjects with RSP (P<0.05). Conclusions: The PM stretching exercise and application of a shoulder brace may help correct RSP and restore the length of the PM. The posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching was the most effective method for eliciting greater LT muscle activation among the interventions tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 10/2014; xxx(xxx). · 1.64 Impact Factor