Current antipsychotic dose correlates to mononuclear cell counts in the cerebrospinal fluid of psychotic patients
ABSTRACT Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) levels have been evidenced in patients with schizophrenia who have been treated with antipsychotics. In order to explore a possible mononuclear cell origin of CSF ACE, the authors determined CSF ACE and CSF mononuclear cell counts from 25 acutely psychotic patients, who had been drug-free for at least 4 months but started on conventional antipsychotic medication within a few days before sampling. No correlations were found between CSF to serum ACE ratio and CSF mononuclear cell counts. However, CSF total mononuclear cell count, CSF lymphocyte count, and CSF mononuclear phagocyte count evidenced significant positive correlations with current dose of antipsychotic medication expressed as chlorpromazine equivalents. The authors conclude that no indication of a relationship between mononuclear cells and CSF ACE activity was found. Surprisingly, a relationship between chlorpromazine dose and CSF mononuclear cell counts was found, which may indicate drug-related changes in cell-mediated immunity. This finding needs replication and further corroboration in well-designed studies.
SourceAvailable from: Markus J SchwarzAdvances in Molecular and Cell Biology 01/2003; 31:999-1031. DOI:10.1016/S1569-2558(03)31045-8
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is conceptualized as a failure of cognitive integration, and altered oscillatory properties of neurocircuits are associated with its symptoms. We hypothesized that abnormal characteristics of neural networks may alter functional connectivity and distort propagation of activation in schizophrenic brains. Thus, electroencephalography (EEG) responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex were compared between schizophrenia and healthy subjects. There was no difference in the initial response. However, TMS-induced waves of recurrent excitation spreading across the cortex were observed in schizophrenia, while in healthy subjects the activation faded away soon after stimulation. This widespread activation in schizophrenia was associated with increased oscillatory activities in the proximal central leads and in fronto-temporo-parietal leads bilaterally. A positive correlation was found between increased TMS-induced cortical activation in gamma frequency and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, while negative symptoms were correlated with activation in theta and delta bands. We suggest that excessive activation in response to stimulation in schizophrenia brains may lead to abnormal propagation of the signal that could potentially result in aberrant activity in areas remote from the activation origin. This mechanism may account for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and could worsen signal to noise deficits, jeopardizing adequate information processing with ensuing cognitive deficits.Cerebral Cortex 10/2012; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhs304 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with immune system dysfunction, including abnormal blood immune cell parameters. We performed a meta-analysis of these associations, considering the effect of clinical status and antipsychotic treatment following an acute exacerbation of psychosis. METHODS: We identified articles by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, and Thomson Reuters (formerly ISI) Web of Knowledge and the reference lists of identified studies. RESULTS: Sixteen studies of blood lymphocytes met the inclusion criteria. There was insufficient data for a meta-analysis of the mononuclear phagocytic system. In cross-sectional studies, there was a significant increase in the CD4% and CD56% in acutely relapsed inpatients. Absolute levels of total lymphocytes, CD3, and CD4, and the CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly increased, and the CD3% was significantly decreased in drug-native first-episode psychosis. In longitudinal studies, the CD4/CD8 ratio appeared to be state-related markers, as it decreased following antipsychotic treatment for acute exacerbations of psychosis. Absolute CD56 levels appeared to be a trait marker, as levels significantly increased following antipsychotic treatment for relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Blood lymphocyte abnormalities in drug-naïve first-episode psychosis suggest an effect that may be independent of antipsychotic medications. While some parameters (CD4/CD8) may be state markers for acute exacerbations of psychosis, others (CD56) may be trait markers; however, more longitudinal studies are needed. Although these findings could provide the basis for future hypothesis testing, a relatively small number of studies and subjects, lack of correlative data with clinical features, and inadequate consideration of potential confounding factors limit the results.Biological psychiatry 10/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.09.007 · 9.47 Impact Factor