A phosphotyrosine displacement mechanism for activation of Src by PTPalpha.
ABSTRACT Protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTPalpha) is believed to dephosphorylate physiologically the Src proto-oncogene at phosphotyrosine (pTyr)527, a critical negative-regulatory residue. It thereby activates Src, and PTPalpha overexpression neoplastically transforms NIH 3T3 cells. pTyr789 in PTPalpha is constitutively phosphorylated and binds Grb2, an interaction that may inhibit PTPalpha activity. We show here that this phosphorylation also specifically enables PTPalpha to dephosphorylate pTyr527. Tyr789-->Phe mutation abrogates PTPalpha-Src binding, dephosphorylation of pTyr527 (although not of other substrates), and neoplastic transformation by overexpressed PTPalpha in vivo. We suggest that pTyr789 enables pTyr527 dephosphorylation by a pilot binding with the Src SH2 domain that displaces the intramolecular pTyr527-SH2 binding. Consistent with model predictions, we find that excess SH2 domains can disrupt PTPalpha-Src binding and can block PTPalpha-mediated dephosphorylation and activation in proportion to their affinity for pTyr789. Moreover, we show that, as predicted by the model, catalytically defective PTPalpha has reduced Src binding in vivo. The displacement mechanism provides another potential control point for physiological regulation of Src-family signal transduction pathways.
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ABSTRACT: The sea urchin egg has a rich history of contributions to our understanding of fundamental questions of egg activation at fertilization. Within seconds of sperm-egg interaction, calcium is released from the egg endoplasmic reticulum, launching the zygote into the mitotic cell cycle and the developmental program. The sequence of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome offers unique opportunities to apply functional genomic and proteomic approaches to investigate the repertoire and regulation of Ca(2+) signaling and homeostasis modules present in the egg and zygote. The sea urchin "calcium toolkit" as predicted by the genome is described. Emphasis is on the Ca(2+) signaling modules operating during egg activation, but the Ca(2+) signaling repertoire has ramifications for later developmental events and adult physiology as well. Presented here are the mechanisms that control the initial release of Ca(2+) at fertilization and additional signaling components predicted by the genome and found to be expressed and operating in eggs at fertilization. The initial release of Ca(2+) serves to coordinate egg activation, which is largely a phenomenon of post-translational modifications, especially dynamic protein phosphorylation. Functional proteomics can now be used to identify the phosphoproteome in general and specific kinase targets in particular. This approach is described along with findings to date. Key outstanding questions regarding the activation of the developmental program are framed in the context of what has been learned from the genome and how this knowledge can be applied to functional studies.Developmental Biology 01/2007; 300(1):416-33. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.09.006 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell motility on ECM critically depends on the cellular response to force from the matrix. We find that force-dependent reinforcement of alphav/beta3-integrin-mediated cell-matrix connections requires the receptor-like tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha). RPTPalpha colocalizes with alphav-integrins at the leading edge during early spreading, and coimmunoprecipitates with alphav-integrins during spreading on fibronectin and vitronectin. RPTPalpha-dependent activation of Src family kinases, in particular activation of Fyn, is required for the force-dependent formation of focal complexes and strengthening of alphav/beta3-integrin-cytoskeleton connections during the initial phase of ECM contact. These observations indicate that Src family kinases have distinct functions during adhesion site assembly, and that RPTPalpha is an early component in force-dependent signal transduction pathways leading to the assembly of focal complexes on both fibronectin and vitronectin.The Journal of Cell Biology 05/2003; 161(1):143-53. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200211061 · 9.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We characterized the role of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-alpha in focal adhesion (FA) formation and remodeling using wild-type and PTPalpha-deficient (PTPalpha(-/-)) cells. Compared with wild-type cells, spreading PTPalpha(-/-) fibroblasts displayed fewer leading edges and formed elongated alpha-actinin-enriched FA at the cell periphery. These features suggest the presence of slowly remodeling cell adhesions and were phenocopied in human fibroblasts in which PTPalpha was knocked down using short interfering RNA (siRNA) or in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts expressing catalytically inactive (C433S/C723S) PTPalpha. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed slower green fluorescence protein-alpha-actinin recovery in the FA of PTPalpha(-/-) than wild-type cells. These alterations correlated with reduced cell spreading, adhesion, and polarization and retarded contraction of extracellular matrices in PTPalpha(-/-) fibroblasts. Activation of Rac1 and its recruitment to FA during spreading were diminished in cells expressing C433S/C723S PTPalpha. Rac1(-/-) cells also displayed abnormally elongated and peripherally distributed FA that failed to remodel. Conversely, expression of constitutively active Rac1 restored normal FA remodeling in PTPalpha(-/-) cells. We conclude that PTPalpha is required for remodeling of FA during cell spreading via a pathway involving Rac1.AJP Cell Physiology 05/2008; 294(4):C931-44. DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.00359.2007 · 3.67 Impact Factor
Ross J Resnick