Relative bioavailability and effects of a high fat meal on single dose cilostazol pharmacokinetics.
ABSTRACT The objectives of this research were to (1) assess the relative bioavailability following administration of a 100 mg cilostazol suspension versus 100 mg tablet; (2) assess dosage form equivalency (2 x 50 mg compared with 1 x 100 mg); (3) compare the relative bioavailability following a single 50 mg dose of cilostazol administered as an ethanolic solution versus a 50 mg tablet; and (4) determine the effects of high fat diet on the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol following a single dose of 100 mg cilostazol in the fed or fasted state. Results were compiled from 3 separate studies to address these objectives.
All studies involved healthy adult males receiving single oral doses of cilostazol in the fed or fasted state. The fed state consisted of administering cilostazol after ingestion of a high fat meal. One study compared the relative bioavailability of 100 mg suspension and 2 x 50 mg tablet versus 100 mg tablet in a randomised crossover design. The study involving administration of a 50 mg cilostazol ethanolic solution was a single treatment study. The effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol after administration of 100 mg cilostazol in the fed or fasted state as well as the pharmacokinetic profile following administration of a single 50 mg oral dose of cilostazol were assessed in a randomised crossover design.
All participants were healthy nonsmoking males aged between 19 and 48 years whose bodyweight was within 15% of ideal bodyweight.
Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for each study participant.
The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) parameters were within the 80 to 125% criterion for bioequivalence for the cilostazol and its primary metabolite, OPC-13015. The maximum observed plasma concentrations (Cmax) for these formulations were not equivalent and indicated that the absorption of cilostazol from a suspension is more rapid than from a tablet. The apparent terminal half-lives (t1/2z) of cilostazol and OPC-13015 were shorter after administration of the suspension compared with the tablet. Cmax and AUC following administration of a single 50 mg cilostazol tablet were approximately 80% of that from the same dose administered as an ethanolic solution. The t1/2z of cilostazol decreased from 15.5 hours after a tablet to 2.5 hours after an ethanolic solution. Upon coadministration with a high fat meal, the Cmax of cilostazol increased 90% and AUC infinity increased 25% (p < 0.05). The t1/2z decreased from 15.1 +/- 14.5 hours (mean +/- SD) in the fasted state to 5.4 +/- 2.0 hours in the fed state. Single oral doses of 50 and 100 mg cilostazol were well tolerated.
The relative bioavailability of the 100 mg cilostazol tablet versus an oral 100 mg cilostazol suspension is 100%. The 2 x 50 mg and 1 x 100 mg tablets are considered to be bioequivalent. The absorption following administration of 50 mg cilostazol ethanolic solution is faster and appears to be greater than that after administration of the 50 mg tablet. Coadministration of food increases the rate and extent of cilostazol absorption. The oral pharmacokinetics of cilostazol and metabolites are absorption-rate limited. The significant differences in the t1/2z observed when comparing cilostazol tablet, suspension, and solution as well as the effects of food suggest 'flip-flop' pharmacokinetics.
Article: Investigation of nanosized crystalline form to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble cilostazol.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop cilostazol (CLT) nanocrystals intended to improve its dissolution rate and enhance its bioavailability. In this study, CLT nanosuspension was prepared by the anti-solvent and high-pressure homogenization method. The effects of the production parameters, such as the stabilizer concentration, pressure and number of cycles, were investigated. Characterization of the product was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Nitrogen adsorption, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRPD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), particle size analysis and dissolution testing. Additionally, the comparison studies of oral bioavailability in beagle dogs of three type tables were performed. The images of SEM showed a spherical smooth CLT powder, and Nitrogen adsorption test revealed spray dried powder were porous with high BET surface area compared with that of raw CLT. DSC and XRPD results demonstrated that the combination of preferred polymorph B and C of CLT were prepared successfully, the saturation solubility of the nanosized crystalline powder is about 5 fold greater than that of raw CLT, and the dissolution rate was enhanced 4 fold than that of raw CLT. The Cmax and AUC0-48h of CLT nanosized crystalline tablets were 2.1 fold and 1.9 fold, and 3.0 fold and 2.3 fold compared with those of the nanosized tablets and commercial tablets, respectively. The anti-solvent-high-pressure homogenization technique was employed successfully to produce cilostazol nanosuspensions. The bioavailability of CLT tablets prepared using spray dried nanosized crystalline powder after oral administration to dogs was markedly increased compared with that produced by nanosized tablets and commercial tablets, because of its greater dissolution rate owing to its transition of the crystalline state to form C and form B, reduced particle size and porous structure with increased surface area.Journal of pharmacy & pharmaceutical sciences: a publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Societe canadienne des sciences pharmaceutiques 01/2011; 14(2):196-214. · 1.65 Impact Factor