Kinetic parameters for tmRNA binding to alanyl-tRNA synthetase and elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT Aminoacylation and transportation of tmRNA to stalled ribosomes constitute prerequisite steps for trans-translation, a process facilitating the release of stalled ribosomes from 3' ends of truncated mRNAs and the degradation of incompletely synthesized proteins. Kinetic analysis of the aminoacylation of tmRNA indicates that tmRNA has both a lower affinity and a lower turnover number than cognate tRNA(Ala) for alanyl-tRNA synthetase, resulting in a 75-fold lower k(cat)/K(M) value. The association rate constant of Ala-tmRNA for elongation factor Tu in complex with GTP is about 150-fold lower than that of Ala-tRNA(Ala), whereas its dissocation rate constant is about 5-fold lower. These observations can be interpreted to suggest that additional factors facilitate tmRNA binding to ribosomes.
Article: Ribosome rescue systems in bacteria.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ribosomes often stall during protein synthesis in various situations in a cell, either unexpectedly or in a programmed fashion. While some of them remain stalled for gene regulation, many are rescued by some cellular systems. Ribosomes stalled at the 3' end of a truncated mRNA lacking a stop codon (non-stop mRNA) are rescued by trans-translation mediated by tmRNA (transfer-messenger RNA) and a partner protein, SmpB. Through trans-translation, a degradation tag is added to the C-termini of truncated polypeptides from a truncated mRNA to prevent them from accumulation in the cell. Trans-translation has crucial roles in a wide variety of cellular events, especially under stressful conditions. The trans-translation system is thought to be universally present in the bacterial domain, although it is not necessarily essential in all bacterial cells. It has recently been revealed that two other systems, one involving a small protein, ArfA, with RF2 and the other involving YaeJ (ArfB), a class I release factor homologue, operate to relieve ribosome stalling in Escherichia coli. Thus, many bacterial species would have multiple systems to cope with various kinds of stalled translation events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Sociétéfrançaise de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.Biochimie 11/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In bacteria, transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and SmpB comprise the most common and effective system for rescuing stalled ribosomes. Ribosomes stall on mRNA transcripts lacking stop codons and are rescued as the defective mRNA is swapped for the tmRNA template in a process known as trans-translation. The tmRNA-SmpB complex is recruited to the ribosome independent of a codon-anticodon interaction. Given that the ribosome uses robust discriminatory mechanisms to select against non-cognate tRNAs during canonical decoding, it has been hard to explain how this can happen. Recent structural and biochemical studies show that SmpB licenses tmRNA entry through its interactions with the decoding center and mRNA channel. In particular, the C-terminal tail of SmpB promotes both EFTu activation and accommodation of tmRNA, the former through interactions with 16S rRNA nucleotide G530 and the latter through interactions with the mRNA channel downstream of the A site. Here we present a detailed model of the earliest steps in trans-translation, and in light of these mechanistic considerations, revisit the question of how tmRNA preferentially reacts with stalled, non-translating ribosomes.Frontiers in Microbiology 09/2014; 5:462. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Messenger RNAs lacking a stop codon trap ribosomes at their 3' ends, depleting the pool of ribosomes available for protein synthesis. In bacteria, a remarkable quality control system rescues and recycles stalled ribosomes in a process known as trans-translation. Acting as a tRNA, transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is aminoacylated, delivered by EF-Tu to the ribosomal A site, and accepts the nascent polypeptide. Translation then resumes on a reading frame within tmRNA, encoding a short peptide tag that targets the nascent peptide for degradation by proteases. One unsolved issue in trans-translation is how tmRNA and its protein partner SmpB preferentially recognize stalled ribosomes and not actively translating ones. Here, we examine the effect of the length of the 3' extension of mRNA on each step of trans-translation by pre-steady-state kinetic methods and fluorescence polarization binding assays. Unexpectedly, EF-Tu activation and GTP hydrolysis occur rapidly regardless of the length of the mRNA, although the peptidyl transfer to tmRNA decreases as the mRNA 3' extension increases and the tmRNA·SmpB binds less tightly to the ribosome with an mRNA having a long 3' extension. From these results, we conclude that the tmRNA·SmpB complex dissociates during accommodation due to competition between the downstream mRNA and the C-terminal tail for the mRNA channel. Rejection of the tmRNA·SmpB complex during accommodation is reminiscent of the rejection of near-cognate tRNA from the ribosome in canonical translation.RNA 09/2014; · 4.62 Impact Factor