A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of risperidone and its major active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone in plasma. Risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in plasma were extracted using a CN bonded-solid phase cartridge, followed by, C4 reversed-phase HPLC separation. Risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone and trazodone as an internal standard were detected by ultraviolet absorbance at 280 nm. It was possible to determine risperidone in the concentration range of 1.0-100.0 ng/ml(-1) and 9-hydroxyrisperidone at a range of 2.0-200.0 ng/ml(-1). The detection limits of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were 0.5 and 1.0 ng/ml(-1), respectively. The mean recoveries of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone added to plasma were less than 92.0 and 92.6%, with a coefficient of variation of less than 10.6 and 10.5%, respectively. This method has been used for the simultaneous determination of steady-state plasma concentration (Css) of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in schizophrenic patients treated with 3-, 6-, and 12-mg risperidone oral doses per day.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several neuroleptics inhibited the 3 μM γ-aminobutyric acid induced-chloride current (GABA-current) on dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in whole-cell patch-clamp investigations.
The IC50 for clozapine, zotepine, olanzapine, risperidone and chlorpromazine were 6.95, 18.26, 20.30, 106.01 and 114.56 μM, respectively. The values for the inhibitory effects of neuroleptics on the GABA (3 μM)-current, which were calculated by the fitting Hill's equations where the concentrations represent the mean therapeutic blood concentrations, were ranked clozapine>zotepine>chlorpromazine>olanzapine>risperidone. These inhibitory effects, weighted with the therapeutic concentrations of neuroleptics, were correlated with the clinical incidences of seizure during treatment with neuroleptics.
Clozapine reduced the picrotoxin-inhibiton, and may compete with a ligand of the t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding site.
Haloperidol and quetiapine did not affect the peak amplitude of the GABA (3 μM)-current. However, haloperidol reduced the clozapine-inhibition, and may antagonize ligand binding to TBPS binding site.
Neuroleptics including haloperidol and quetiapine enhanced the desensitization of the GABA (3 μM)-current. However, haloperidol and quetiapine at 100 μM inhibited the desensitization at the beginning of application.
Blonanserin (AD-5423) at 30 and 50 μM potentiated the GABA (3 μM)-current to 170.1±6.9 and 192.0±10.6% of the control current, respectively. Blonanserin shifted GABA concentration-response curve leftward. Blonanserin only partly negatively interacted with diazepam. The blonanserin-potentiation was not reversed by flumazenil. Blonanserin is not a benzodiazepine receptor agonist.
The various effects of neuroleptics on the GABA-current may be related to the clinical effects including modifying the seizure threshold.
British Journal of Pharmacology (2002) 135, 1547–1555; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704608
British Journal of Pharmacology 03/2002; 135(6):1547-55. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704608 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed for the determination of estazolam in human plasma. Estazolam and alprazolam as an internal standard were detected by ultraviolet absorbance at 240 nm. Estazolam in plasma was extracted by a rapid and simple procedure based on cyanopropyl bonded-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a reversed-phase C8-5 column using a mobile phase of 0.5% potassium dihydrogenphosphate(pH 4.5)-acetonitrile (70:30, v/v). The determination of estazolam was possible in the concentration range of 1.0 - 200.0 ng/mL. The mean recovery of estazolam added to plasma was 96.1 +/- 1.5% with coefficients of variation of less than 5.5%. This method is applicable for accurately monitoring the plasma level of estazolam in healthy subjects participating in scientific research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple high performance liquid chromatography techniques with ultraviolet detection (HPLC–UV) method is described for the simultaneous determination of clozapine (CZP), clozapine N-oxide (CNO), N-desmethylclozapine (NCZ), risperidone (RSP) and 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OHRSP) in human plasma. After extraction process, the analytes were separated on a C18 column ( mm i.d.) by the mobile phase (methanol–water–dimethylamine, 60:40:0.04 (v:v:v)). Relative recoveries of five analytes were quantitative. The precision and accuracy of intra- and interday assays were all below 8.2% for R.S.D. and 5.6% for RE, respectively. Based on 1 ml of plasma, the limits of detection were 2.0 ng/ml for CZP, 0.2 ng/ml for CZP N-oxide, 1.0 ng/ml for NCZ, 1.0 ng/ml for RSP, and 0.5 ng/ml for 9-OHRSP (S/N=3). The calibration curves were linear (r≥0.988). This method was applied to therapeutic drug monitoring of schizophrenia patients receiving CZP or RSP therapy.
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