Relatively little is known about sleep habits, sleep disturbances, and the consequences of disordered sleep in school-aged children. This descriptive study examined a variety of common sleep behaviors in a group of 494 elementary school children, grades kindergarten through fourth, using a battery of sleep questionnaires that included parent, teacher, and self-report surveys. The prevalence of parent-defined sleep problems ranged from 3.7% (Sleep-Disordered Breathing) to 15.1% (Bedtime Resistance), with 37% of the overall sample described as having significant sleep problems in at least one sleep domain. Younger children were more likely than older children to have sleep problems noted by parents (particularly bedtime struggles and night wakings), as well as by teacher and self-report. Children tended to identify more sleep problems by self-report, particularly sleep-onset delay and night wakings, than did their parents. Overall, approximately 10% of the sample was identified by all three measures as having significant problems with daytime sleepiness. The results of this study emphasize the importance of screening for sleep disorders in this age group in the clinical setting. The need for consensus regarding the use of sleep screening instruments and the definition of "problem" sleep in school-aged children is also discussed.
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"In fact , at least 30 – 50% of children and adults with DS experience some form of sleep disturbance , particularly sleep fragmentation and obstructive sleep apnea , where the upper airway is obstructed during sleep , resulting in intermittent hypoxia ( Owens et al . , 2000 ; Pegg , 2006 ; Waldman et al . , 2009 ; Ashworth et al . , 2013 ) . Sleep apnea is a state that limits the time spent in the deepest stages of sleep ( i . e . , non rapid eye - movement ; non - REM periods ) and a sleep state that seems to be particularly important for memory consolidation , including the integration of word knowledge "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much progress has been made toward behavioral and pharmacological intervention in intellectual disability, which was once thought too difficult to treat. Down syndrome (DS) research has shown rapid advances, and clinical trials are currently underway, with more on the horizon. Here, we review the literature on the emergent profile of cognitive development in DS, emphasizing that treatment approaches must consider how some " end state " impairments, such as language deficits, may develop from early alterations in neural systems beginning in infancy. Specifically, we highlight evidence suggesting that there are pre-and early postnatal alterations in brain structure and function in DS, resulting in disturbed network function across development. We stress that these early alterations are likely amplified by Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and poor sleep. Focusing on three network hubs (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum), we discuss how these regions may relate to evolving deficits in cognitive function in individuals with DS, and to their language profile in particular.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anxiety-related concerns are among the most common presenting problems for school-age children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinical settings. The current study examined the relationship between anxiety and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, sleep problems, and challenging behavior in a sample of children and adolescents with ASD, aged 6–17 years. Parental measures were completed by 109 parents of children and adolescents with ASD. Significant positive correlations were found between anxiety and GI symptoms, and anxiety and sleep problems. A hierarchal linear regression indicated that demographic variables, GI symptoms, sleep problems, and challenging behavior accounted for 34% of the variance in anxiety, with sleep, severity of self-injurious behavior, age, and diagnosis of intellectual disability emerging as significant predictors. The findings suggest that these factors should be considered during clinical practice as they may serve as important alerts for clinicians to consider assessing for anxiety disorders. Future research should investigate these variables further by examining their associations with specific types of anxiety disorders.
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 11/2014; 10. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.10.017 · 2.96 Impact Factor
"After reversescoring some items, 13 items are used to create a total SSR score, with higher scores indicative of more problematic sleep behavior (α = 0.69). The SSR was developed for use with children aged 7 and above   and has also been used in previous research with 6-year-old children  (11 children in the current study were 6 years old). The SSR is considered " approaching well-established " in assessing subjective measure of sleep functioning  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Several child-report measures of sleep functioning have been developed but very few studies have examined the external validity of child self-reported sleep in relation to daytime functioning. This study examined child-reported sleep in relation to teacher-rated psychopathology symptoms and also tested the hypothesis that child-reported sleep would be associated with poorer child- and teacher-reported functioning after controlling for demographics and psychopathology symptoms that are known to be associated with adjustment.
Participants were 175 children (81 boys, 94 girls) in 1st-6th grades (ages 6-13) and their teachers. Children completed the Sleep Self-Report. Teachers completed a measure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional/conduct, and anxiety/depression symptoms. Children and teachers completed multiple measures of academic, behavioral, and social/peer functioning.
Child-reported sleep was significantly associated with teacher-rated inattentive and internalizing symptoms, even after controlling for child demographics, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and conduct problems. Multilevel modeling analyses further indicated that, after controlling for child demographics and psychopathology symptoms, child-reported sleep problems were significantly associated with poorer child- and teacher-reported academic, behavioral, and social functioning (including increased reactive aggression, peer rejection, loneliness, and lower friendship satisfaction and self-worth).
Findings provide initial support for the external validity of children's self-reported sleep functioning. Results of this study suggest that it may be clinically useful to screen for sleep problems by assessing for children's own perceptions of their sleep. Future studies should include both child- and parent-reported sleep functioning to further examine the utility of children's ratings of sleep functioning.
Sleep Medicine 06/2014; 15(9). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.06.001 · 3.15 Impact Factor