Sucrose consumption increases naloxone-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in limbic forebrain.
ABSTRACT Opioids have long been known to have an important role in feeding behavior, particularly related to the rewarding aspects of food. Considerable behavioral evidence suggests that sucrose consumption induces endogenous opioid release, affecting feeding behavior as well as other opioid-mediated behaviors, such as analgesia, dependence, and withdrawal. In the present study, rats were given access to a 10% sucrose solution or water for 3 wk, then they were injected with 10 mg/kg naloxone or saline. Brains were subsequently analyzed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-IR) in limbic and autonomic regions in the forebrain and hindbrain. Main effects of sucrose consumption or naloxone injection were seen in several areas, but a significant interaction was seen only in the central nucleus of the amygdala and in the lateral division of the periaqueductal gray. In the central nucleus of the amygdala, naloxone administration to those rats drinking water significantly increased c-Fos-IR, an effect that was significantly enhanced by sucrose consumption, suggesting an upregulation of endogenous opioid tone in this area. The data from this study indicate that the central nucleus of the amygdala has a key role in the integration of gustatory, hedonic, and autonomic signals as they relate to sucrose consumption, if not to food intake regulation in general. Furthermore, the data from this study lend further support to the hypothesis that sucrose consumption induces the release of endogenous opioids.
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ABSTRACT: Previous research from our laboratory has determined that in the absence of a gustatory response or taste hedonics, intraperitoneal (i.p.) glucose administration enhanced morphine-mediated analgesia in rats and had antinociceptive actions on its own. Two experiments examined the potential of a central mechanism for glucose’s actions on morphine-mediated antinociception. Morphine (2.5 μg) was infused into the periaqueductal gray (PAG) while glucose (300 mg/kg) was injected into the peritoneal cavity, or glucose (32 nmol) was infused into the PAG while morphine (3.2 mg/kg) was injected i.p. Doses of morphine and glucose were selected based on our own prior research for being below the threshold for analgesic efficacy. Antinociception was assessed using the hot-water tail-withdrawal procedure. Tailwithdrawal latency was tested at baseline (before), and 12, 24 and 36 minutes after the i.p. injection. The results indicated that 300 mg/kg glucose, administered i.p. effectively increased the antinociceptive potency of a low dose of centrally administered morphine, while central infusion of glucose enhanced peripheral morphine-mediated antinociception. These outcomes support previous evidence of glucose’s influence on the antinociception actions of opioid drugs. Furthermore, they suggest that glucose produces its enhancing actions on morphine-mediated antinociception in the brain. These results support the hypothesis that glucose does not need to go through a gustatory mechanism or taste hedonics to alter morphine’s antinociceptive actions.Annals of Neuroscience and Psychology. 12/2014; 1.
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ABSTRACT: Sugar and fat intake in rodents are mediated in part by brain dopamine (DA) and opioid neurotransmitter systems although important strain differences exist. Thus, whereas sucrose intake of BALB/c and SWR mice was reduced by DA D1 (SCH23390: SCH) receptor antagonism, opioid (naltrexone: NTX) receptor antagonism reduced intake only in BALB/c mice. Both SCH and NTX reduced fat (Intralipid) intake in SWR, but not BALB/c mice. The present study extended this pharmacological analysis to caloric and non-caloric sweeteners by examining whether fructose (8%) or saccharin (0.2%) intakes were differentially suppressed in BALB/c and SWR mice by SCH (50–1600 nmol/kg) or NTX (0.01–5 mg/kg) over a 5- to 120-min time course. SCH significantly reduced fructose (200–1600 nmol/kg) and saccharin (50–1600 nmol/kg) intakes in both strains as did NTX (0.1–5 mg/kg). Antagonist ID40 potencies were < 50 nmol/kg for SCH and 0.9 mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting saccharin intake, and 1234 nmol/kg for S CH and 5 mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting fructose intake in BALB/c mice. For SWR mice, the ID40 potencies were < 50 nmol/kg for SCH and 0.02 mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting saccharin intake, and 298 nmol/kg for SCH and 2.6 mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting fructose intake. Thus, saccharin intake was similarly reduced by SCH and NTX in BALB/c and SWR mice, but greater potencies of opioid (1.9-fold) and DA D1 (4-fold) receptor antagonism of fructose intake were observed in SWR relative to BALB/c mice, indicating strong strain differences.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/2015; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fat, ethanol, and nicotine share a number of properties, including their ability to reinforce behavior and produce overconsumption. To test whether these substances act similarly on the same neuronal populations in specific brain areas mediating these behaviors, we administered the substances short-term, using the same methods and within the same experiment, and measured their effects, in areas of the hypothalamus (HYPO), amygdala (AMYG), and nucleus accumbens (NAc), on mRNA levels of the opioid peptide, enkephalin (ENK), using in situ hybridization and on c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir) to indicate neuronal activity, using immunofluorescence histochemistry. In addition, we examined for comparison another reinforcing substance, sucrose, and also took measurements of stress-related behaviors and circulating corticosterone (CORT) and triglycerides (TG), to determine if they contribute to these substances' behavioral and physiological effects. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged three times daily over five days with 3.5 ml of water, Intralipid (20% v/v), ethanol (12% v/v), nicotine (0.01% w/v) or sucrose (22% w/v) (approximately 7 kcal/dose), and tail vein blood was collected for measurements of circulating CORT and TG. On day five, animals were sacrificed, brains removed, and the HYPO, AMYG, and NAc processed for single- or double-labeling of ENK mRNA and c-Fos-ir. Fat, ethanol, and nicotine, but not sucrose, increased the single- and double-labeling of ENK and c-Fos-ir in precisely the same brain areas, the middle parvocellular but not lateral area of the paraventricular nucleus, central but not basolateral nucleus of the AMYG, and core but not shell of the NAc. While having little effect on stress-related behaviors or CORT levels, fat, ethanol, and nicotine all increased circulating levels of TG. These findings suggest that the overconsumption of these three substances and their potential for abuse are mediated by the same populations of ENK-expressing neurons in specific nuclei of the hypothalamus and limbic system.Neuroscience 07/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor