Sucrose consumption increases naloxone-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in limbic forebrain.
ABSTRACT Opioids have long been known to have an important role in feeding behavior, particularly related to the rewarding aspects of food. Considerable behavioral evidence suggests that sucrose consumption induces endogenous opioid release, affecting feeding behavior as well as other opioid-mediated behaviors, such as analgesia, dependence, and withdrawal. In the present study, rats were given access to a 10% sucrose solution or water for 3 wk, then they were injected with 10 mg/kg naloxone or saline. Brains were subsequently analyzed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-IR) in limbic and autonomic regions in the forebrain and hindbrain. Main effects of sucrose consumption or naloxone injection were seen in several areas, but a significant interaction was seen only in the central nucleus of the amygdala and in the lateral division of the periaqueductal gray. In the central nucleus of the amygdala, naloxone administration to those rats drinking water significantly increased c-Fos-IR, an effect that was significantly enhanced by sucrose consumption, suggesting an upregulation of endogenous opioid tone in this area. The data from this study indicate that the central nucleus of the amygdala has a key role in the integration of gustatory, hedonic, and autonomic signals as they relate to sucrose consumption, if not to food intake regulation in general. Furthermore, the data from this study lend further support to the hypothesis that sucrose consumption induces the release of endogenous opioids.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is on the rise in many industrialized countries, and a large part of this epidemic phenomenon is attributed to overeating induced by ubiquitous highly palatable and high energy density food cues.The ability to maintain adequate nutrient intake is critical for survival. Due to this, complex interrelated neuronal circuits have been developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of the feeding behavior. There are certain strong homeostatic mechanisms that are regulated by the hypothalamus and the brainstem, which sustain body weight. However, in the current “obesogenic” environment, food intake is largely determined by non-homeostatic or hedonic factors, primarily processed in corticolimbic and higher cortical brain regions. This paper presents a review that describes the mechanisms responsible for the processing of food reward, the interaction between homeostatic and reward mechanisms, as well as its implications in hyperphagia and obesity.Revista Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo. 07/2013;
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ABSTRACT: The effects of intraperitoneal (ip) d-glucose administration on antinociception were studied in male Long-Evans rats. Rats were assessed for antinociception using the hot-water tail-withdrawal procedure (54±0.2° C) to determine if peripheral administration of d-glucose (300, 560, or 720mg/kg) would enhance morphine-mediated antinociception (MMA) (1.0, 3.0, 4.2, 5.6, and 10.0mg/kg cumulative-dosing regime) and if d-glucose (560, 720, or 1000mg/kg) alone could produce antinociceptive activity that was naloxone (0.32mg/kg) reversible. Additionally, the actions of d-glucose on MMA were compared with a stereoisomer, l-glucose, which is not metabolized. The results of these studies demonstrate that peripheral administration of d-glucose significantly enhances MMA and that d-glucose alone produces antinociceptive actions that are potentially mediated by the endogenous opioid system. Furthermore, l-glucose failed to have an effect on MMA suggesting that the alterations in antinociception seen with d-glucose are not due to stressors such as osmolality or injection. The current studies provide evidence that d-glucose alteration of antinociception is not simply a response to taste or gustation.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 12/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fat, ethanol, and nicotine share a number of properties, including their ability to reinforce behavior and produce overconsumption. To test whether these substances act similarly on the same neuronal populations in specific brain areas mediating these behaviors, we administered the substances short-term, using the same methods and within the same experiment, and measured their effects, in areas of the hypothalamus (HYPO), amygdala (AMYG), and nucleus accumbens (NAc), on mRNA levels of the opioid peptide, enkephalin (ENK), using in situ hybridization and on c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir) to indicate neuronal activity, using immunofluorescence histochemistry. In addition, we examined for comparison another reinforcing substance, sucrose, and also took measurements of stress-related behaviors and circulating corticosterone (CORT) and triglycerides (TG), to determine if they contribute to these substances' behavioral and physiological effects. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged three times daily over five days with 3.5 ml of water, Intralipid (20% v/v), ethanol (12% v/v), nicotine (0.01% w/v) or sucrose (22% w/v) (approximately 7 kcal/dose), and tail vein blood was collected for measurements of circulating CORT and TG. On day five, animals were sacrificed, brains removed, and the HYPO, AMYG, and NAc processed for single- or double-labeling of ENK mRNA and c-Fos-ir. Fat, ethanol, and nicotine, but not sucrose, increased the single- and double-labeling of ENK and c-Fos-ir in precisely the same brain areas, the middle parvocellular but not lateral area of the paraventricular nucleus, central but not basolateral nucleus of the AMYG, and core but not shell of the NAc. While having little effect on stress-related behaviors or CORT levels, fat, ethanol, and nicotine all increased circulating levels of TG. These findings suggest that the overconsumption of these three substances and their potential for abuse are mediated by the same populations of ENK-expressing neurons in specific nuclei of the hypothalamus and limbic system.Neuroscience 07/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor