The protein Hrb57A of Drosophila melanogaster closely related to hnRNP K from vertebrates is present at sites active in transcription and coprecipitates with four RNA-binding proteins.
ABSTRACT The hnRNP K protein is among the major hnRNA-binding proteins with a strong preference for cytidine-rich sequences. We have cloned a Drosophila hnRNP protein closely related to this vertebrate protein. The protein first identified by the monoclonal antibody Q18 is encoded by a gene located in 57A on polytene chromosomes and has been consequently named Hrb57A. The amino acid sequence of the Hrb57A KH domains and their overall organisation in the protein are remarkably similar to the vertebrate proteins. As the hnRNP K in vertebrates the M(r) 55 000 Drosophila Hrb57A/Q18 protein strongly binds to poly(C) in vitro and is ubiquitously present in nuclei active in transcription. On polytene chromosomes it is found in many puffs and minipuffs. Hrb57A/Q18 specifically coprecipitates four other proteins: Hrb87F/P11 a Drosophila hnRNP A1 homologue, the hnRNA-binding protein S5, the RNA recognition motif-containing protein NonA and the RNA-binding zinc finger-containing protein on ecdysone puffs PEP/X4.
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ABSTRACT: Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1a) is a well-known conserved protein involved in heterochromatin formation and gene silencing in different species including humans. A general model has been proposed for heterochromatin formation and epigenetic gene silencing in different species that implies an essential role for HP1a. According to the model, histone methyltransferase enzymes (HMTases) methylate the histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me), creating selective binding sites for itself and the chromodomain of HP1a. This complex is thought to form a higher order chromatin state that represses gene activity. It has also been found that HP1a plays a role in telomere capping. Surprisingly, recent studies have shown that HP1a is present at many euchromatic sites along polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster, including the developmental and heat-shock-induced puffs, and that this protein can be removed from these sites by in vivo RNase treatment, thus suggesting an association of HP1a with the transcripts of many active genes. To test this suggestion, we performed an extensive screening by RIP-chip assay (RNA-immunoprecipitation on microarrays), and we found that HP1a is associated with transcripts of more than one hundred euchromatic genes. An expression analysis in HP1a mutants shows that HP1a is required for positive regulation of these genes. Cytogenetic and molecular assays show that HP1a also interacts with the well known proteins DDP1, HRB87F, and PEP, which belong to different classes of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) involved in RNA processing. Surprisingly, we found that all these hnRNP proteins also bind heterochromatin and are dominant suppressors of position effect variegation. Together, our data show novel and unexpected functions for HP1a and hnRNPs proteins. All these proteins are in fact involved both in RNA transcript processing and in heterochromatin formation. This suggests that, in general, similar epigenetic mechanisms have a significant role on both RNA and heterochromatin metabolisms.PLoS Genetics 10/2009; 5(10):e1000670. · 8.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a highly conserved family of RNA-binding proteins able to associate with nascent RNAs in order to support their localization, maturation and translation. Research over this last decade has remarked the importance of gene regulatory processes at post-transcriptional level, highlighting the emerging roles of hnRNPs in several essential biological events. Indeed, hnRNPs are key factors in regulating gene expression, thus, having a number of roles in many biological pathways. Moreover, failure of the activities catalysed by hnRNPs affects various biological processes and may underlie several human diseases including cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative syndromes. In this review, we summarize some of hnRNPs' roles in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, particularly focusing on their participation in all aspects of post-transcriptional regulation as well as their conserved role and involvement in the aetiology of human pathologies.Chromosoma 06/2014; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The biological functions of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are not well understood. However, it is known that hnRNPs are involved in the regulation of alternative splicing for many genes, including the Ddc gene in Drosophila. Therefore, we first confirmed that poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) interacts with two Drosophila hnRNPs, Squid/hrp40 and Hrb98DE/hrp38, and that this function is regulated by Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) and Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase (PARG) in vivo. These findings then provided a basis for analyzing the role of pADPr binding to these two hnRNPs in terms of alternative splicing regulation. Our results showed that Parg null mutation does cause poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Squid and hrp38 protein, as well as their dissociation from active chromatin. Our data also indicated that pADPr binding to hnRNPs inhibits the RNA-binding ability of hnRNPs. Following that, we demonstrated that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Squid and hrp38 proteins inhibits splicing of the intron in the Hsr omega-RC transcript, but enhances splicing of the intron in the Ddc pre-mRNA. Taken together, these findings suggest that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates the interaction between hnRNPs and RNA and thus modulates the splicing pathways.Nucleic Acids Research 05/2009; 37(11):3501-13. · 8.81 Impact Factor