Characterization of the capsid protein gene from a nodavirus strain affecting the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus and design of an optimal reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection assay.
ABSTRACT A 1349 nucleotide fragment of the RNA2 from a nodavirus affecting Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus was characterised and the nuclotide sequence (accession no. AJ245641) was employed to develop an optimal reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection assay. The sequenced part of the RNA2 of Atlantic halibut nodavirus (strain AH95NorA) was highly similar in organisation to that of the RNA2 of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), and comprised features common to all nodaviruses. These characteristics confirmed that the virus that causes viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) in Atlantic halibut is a nodavirus. The nucleotide sequence of the 1349 nucleotide fragment of Atlantic halibut nodavirus RNA2 was 80% identical to the RNA2 of SJNNV. The T2 region (830 nucleotides) of the RNA2 of Atlantic halibut nodavirus shared 98% of the nucleotide sequence when compared with the homologous region of barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (BFNNV), while the nucleotide sequence identity to SJNNV in this region was 76%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of the T4 region (421 nucleotides) of Atlantic halibut nodavirus and of other fish nodaviruses revealed a close relationship to the nodaviruses of the barfin flounder clad that have been found in other cold-water species (Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus and barfin founder Verasper moseri). The nucleotide sequence of the RNA2 of Atlantic halibut nodavirus included some features that differ from that of SJNNV. The ORF of the RNA2 of Atlantic halibut nodavirus lacked 6 nucleotides through a single deletion and a 5-nucleotide deletion, separated by 4 nucleotides. The 3'-non-encoding region contained a 21 nucleotide insert and a 3 nucleotide deletion when compared with SJNNV. In comparison with the RNA2 of SJNNV, the 3'-non-encoding region showed a nucleotide sequence identity of 84.5%. A primer set based on the Atlantic halibut nodavirus nucleotide sequence was employed in order to design an optimal RT-PCR. The detection limit of the PCR was 10 to 100 copies of plasmid, while the detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was 100 to 1000 copies of in vitro transcribed viral RNA.
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ABSTRACT: Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), caused by nodavirus, is one of the major infectious diseases affecting the marine fish farming industry, yet no effective vaccine is available. In this study, we examined the halibut immune response following administration of an experimental vaccine comprising a recombinant nodavirus capsid protein in combination with an oil adjuvant (OA). Four groups of halibut were injected with either: PBS alone, PBS plus OA, 10μg recCP plus OA, or 50μg recCP plus OA. 15 weeks later, half the fish in each group were challenged with nodavirus and the immune response investigated by analysis of serum levels of recCP-specific halibut immunoglobulins (Igs), and mRNA transcript levels of several T-cell markers (CD3ɛ, Lck, CD4, CD4-2, CD8α and CD8β) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12βc and IFNγ). Additionally, the presence of nodaviral RNA2 transcripts in the brains of infected halibut was analysed. After vaccination, the level of IL-6 was consistently elevated in the spleens of fish given injections containing the OA. The combination of recCP and OA increased the expression of IL-1β and IFNγ, as well as the level of recCP-specific Igs in blood plasma. Following challenge with nodavirus, IL-1β and IFNγ were elevated in halibut spleens after 24h in all groups that had received OA with or without recCP antigen. In brain, a general increase in the expression levels of all T-cell markers and IFNγ was observed following challenge with nodavirus. The viral load at 8 weeks post-challenge was lower in the fish that received 50μg recCP, with 5 out of 8 individuals being negative for nodavirus. Additionally, a better correlation between these markers (apart from the CD8 markers), and the viral RNA2 was also observed in this group, suggesting that the activation of CD4+ T-cells might be important in reducing the viral load. In conclusion, this study identifies recCP as a promising candidate antigen for the future development of a vaccine against nodavirus.Vaccine 01/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a serious disease of cultured marine fish worldwide. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the good novel vaccine candidates to control this disease. Until now, betanodavirus vaccine studies mainly focused on the humoral immune response and mortality after virus challenge. However, little is known about the activation of genes responsible for cellular and innate immunity by vaccines. In the present study, VLPs of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV) were produced in prokaryotes and their ability to enter Asian sea bass cells was the same as native virus, suggesting that they possess a similar structure to OGNNV. VLPs immunogenicity was then determined by intramuscularly vaccinating Epinephelus coioides at different concentrations (1.5 or 15μgg(-1) fish body weight, FBW) and immunizing frequencies (administration once, twice and thrice). A single vaccination with the dosage of 1.5μgg(-1) FBW is enough to provoke high titer antibodies (average 3 fold higher than that of negative control) with strong neutralizing antibody titer as early as 1 week post immunization. Furthermore, quantitative PCR analysis revealed that eleven genes associated with humoral, cellular and innate immunities were up-regulated in the liver, spleen and head kidney at 12h post immunization, correlating with the early antibody response. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VLP vaccination induced humoral immune responses and activated genes associated with cellular and innate immunity against betanodavirus infection in orange-spotted grouper.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 10/2013; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis and affect a broad range of fish species worldwide. Their bi-segmented genome is composed of the RNA1 and the RNA2 molecules encoding the viral polymerase and the coat protein, respectively. In southern Europe the presence of the RGNNV and the SJNNV genotypes, and the RGNNV/SJNNV and RGNNV/SJNNV reassortants has been documented. Several studies have reported a correlation between water temperature and disease onset. To explore the replication efficiency of betanodaviruses with different genomes in relation to temperature and to understand the role of genetic reassortment on viral phenotype, RGNNV, SJNNV, RGNNV/SJNNV and RGNNV/SJNNV field isolates were fully sequenced, and growth curves generated in vitro at four different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30[degree sign]C) were developed for each isolate. The data obtained, corroborated by statistical analysis, demonstrated that viral titres of diverse betanodavirus genotypes varied significantly in relation to the incubation temperature of the culture. In particular, at 30[degree sign]C betanodaviruses under investigation presented different phenotypes, and viruses containing the RNA1 of the RGNNV genotype showed the best replication efficiency. Laboratory results demonstrated that viruses clustering within the same genotype based on the polymerase gene, possess similar growth kinetics in response to temperature, thus highlighting the key role of RNA1 in controlling viral replication at different environmental conditions. The results generated might have practical implications for the inference of viral phenotype according to genetic features and may contribute to a better understanding of betanodavirus ecology.Veterinary research. 05/2014; 45(1):56.