Risk of respiratory exposure of dental personnel to amalgam alternatives.
ABSTRACT Although the use of alternatives to dental amalgam is increasing, the possible hazard associated with their occupational exposure has received inadequate attention. The purpose of this study is to use available toxicological and environmental information in a qualitative risk assessment to address potential health hazards associated with exposure to these materials by dental personnel. The members of dental profession should be aware of risk due to long-term exposure to dental materials.
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ABSTRACT: Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention.Environmental Health Perspectives 09/1996; 104 Suppl 4:741-803. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Non-amalgam filling materials may release substances which have been shown to be toxic in cytotoxicity tests and implantation studies. However, results from systemic toxicity tests do not indicate any unacceptable risk to the patient's general health, but data for non-amalgam dental filling materials are scarce in comparison to amalgam. Although estrogen-like effects of one fissure sealant have been claimed, no conclusions can be drawn at present for the patient from these in vitro data because of the limitation of the test methods and materials used. Some components of composite resins/dentin adhesives and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement were mutagenic mainly in in vitro tests. Due to the limitations of the test systems and the comparatively high concentrations needed to elicit the reactions, no unacceptable risk can yet be derived from those data for the patient. However, a no-touch technique is recommended for the dental personnel. As with amalgam, local reactions of the pulp are not expected with alternative filling materials, if the pulp tissue is not exposed and if bacterial penetration is avoided. The latter requirement is still difficult to fulfill, especially for composite resin systems and related materials in posterior teeth situations. Slight gingival reactions to alternative filling materials and to amalgams are mainly attributed to plaque accumulation. From all these data it can be concluded that, for the time being, it is not possible to rank dental filling materials in respect to their biocompatibility, and it is evident that biocompatibility must be considered to the same extent for both amalgams and commonly used or recommended alternative filling materials.European Journal Of Oral Sciences 05/1998; 106(2 Pt 2):696-706. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, the possible environmental impact caused by certain routines in dental practice has attracted attention among regulators. As part of point source reduction strategies, the discharge of mercury/amalgam-contaminated wastes has been regulated in a number of countries, even though it has been documented that by adopting appropriate mercury hygiene measures, including installation of amalgam-separating devices, the environmental impact of amalgam use in dentistry is minimal. There are, so far, no data indicating the environmental impact of methacrylate-based dental filling materials. As to the occupational environment, recent reports have stated that when normal occupational recommendations for proper mercury hygiene routines are followed (e.g., water spray coolant and high vacuum suction during removal of amalgam restorations), no occupational health risk can be assumed. An increasing number of reports on occupational allergic reactions to components of polymer-based dental filling materials call for attention to the sensitizing potential of certain ingredients in these products.European Journal Of Oral Sciences 05/1998; 106(2 Pt 2):713-20. · 1.42 Impact Factor