Radiosurgery for brain metastases: a score index for predicting prognosis.
ABSTRACT To analyze a prognostic score index for patients with brain metastases submitted to stereotactic radiosurgery (the Score Index for Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases [SIR]).
Actuarial survival of 65 brain metastases patients treated with radiosurgery between July 1993 and December 1997 was retrospectively analyzed. Prognostic factors included age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), extracranial disease status, number of brain lesions, largest brain lesion volume, lesions site, and receiving or not whole brain irradiation. The SIR was obtained through summation of the previously noted first five prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival curves for all prognostic factors, SIR, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) (RTOG prognostic score) were calculated. Survival curves of subsets were compared by log-rank test. Application of the Cox model was utilized to identify any correlation between prognostic factors, prognostic scores, and survival.
Median overall survival from radiosurgery was 6.8 months. Utilizing univariate analysis, extracranial disease status, KPS, number of brain lesions, largest brain lesion volume, RPA, and SIR were significantly correlated with prognosis. Median survival for the RPA classes 1, 2, and 3 was 20.19 months, 7.75 months, and 3. 38 months respectively (p = 0.0131). Median survival for patients, grouped under SIR from 1 to 3, 4 to 7, and 8 to 10, was 2.91 months, 7.00 months, and 31.38 months respectively (p = 0.0001). Using the Cox model, extracranial disease status and KPS demonstrated significant correlation with prognosis (p = 0.0001 and 0.0004 respectively). Multivariate analysis also demonstrated significance for SIR and RPA when tested individually (p = 0.0001 and 0.0040 respectively). Applying the Cox Model to both SIR and RPA, only SIR reached independent significance (p = 0.0004).
Systemic disease status, KPS, SIR, and RPA are reliable prognostic factors for patients with brain metastases submitted to radiosurgery. Applying SIR and RPA classifications to our patients' data, SIR demonstrated better accuracy in predicting prognosis. SIR should be further tested with larger patient accrual and for all patients with brain metastases subjected or not to stereotactic radiosurgery.
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ABSTRACT: To define treatment selection criteria for patients with intracranial metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. Between August 1989 and July 1993, 25 patients with intracranial metastases (28 lesions) were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery at the University of Florida. Thirteen patients were treated for progressive intracranial disease after external-beam radiotherapy, and 12 were treated with radiosurgery as an adjunct to initial treatment. Minimum eligibility criteria included histologic verification of primary disease, Karnofsky performance status 50% or greater, three or fewer intracranial metastases, radiographically distinct lesion(s) 4 cm or less in diameter, and reasonably well-controlled primary disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses tested the prognostic significance of Karnofsky performance status, lesion volume, number of lesions, treatment dose (both external beam and stereotactic), histology, site of primary disease, and time interval (less than or greater than 1 year) from primary diagnosis to development of intracranial metastasis or from treatment of intracranial disease to recurrence. Local control was achieved in 84% of 28 lesions treated. The only significant prognostic indicator among the tested variables was the interval to development or recurrence of intracranial metastasis. Although stereotactic radiosurgery improves local control rates and is likely to offer improved palliation for a select cohort of patients, the selection criteria for such patients remain poorly defined. Our data suggest that an interval of greater than 1 year from primary disease diagnosis to development of intracranial metastasis, or from treatment of intracranial metastasis to its recurrence, defines a patient cohort that is more likely to benefit from this treatment technique.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/1995; 32(4):1161-6. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of surgical resection of brain metastases from extracranial primary cancer, we randomly assigned patients with a single brain metastasis to either surgical removal of the brain tumor followed by radiotherapy (surgical group) or needle biopsy and radiotherapy (radiation group). Forty-eight patients (25 in the surgical group and 23 in the radiation group) formed the study group; 6 other patients (11 percent) were excluded from the study because on biopsy their lesions proved to be either second primary tumors or inflammatory or infectious processes. Recurrence at the site of the original metastasis was less frequent in the surgical group than in the radiation group (5 of 25 [20 percent] vs. 12 of 23 [52 percent]; P less than 0.02). The overall length of survival was significantly longer in the surgical group (median, 40 weeks vs. 15 weeks in the radiation group; P less than 0.01), and the patients treated with surgery remained functionally independent longer (median, 38 weeks vs. 8 weeks in the radiation group; P less than 0.005). We conclude that patients with cancer and a single metastasis to the brain who receive treatment with surgical resection plus radiotherapy live longer, have fewer recurrences of cancer in the brain, and have a better quality of life than similar patients treated with radiotherapy alone.New England Journal of Medicine 03/1990; 322(8):494-500. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Whole brain irradiation is the most effective means for treating the patient with brain metastases with symptom relief occurring in 70 to 90% of patients. However, 25-50% of patients with brain metastases will die due to eventual failure in the brain and therefore entry of patients into investigative trials is essential for continued progress in the management of this problem. For the patient who is not part of an investigative trial, short courses of radiation of 20 Gy in 1 week or 30 Gy in 2 weeks are generally as effective as more prolonged courses and even shorter courses of treatment could be considered, particularly for the patient with an estimated survival of only 5-6 weeks. The importance of the treatment of brain metastases on the practice of radiation oncology is significant and comparable to other major cancers treated with radiation. It is critical that radiation oncologists can apply this treatment modality in a cost effective manner with careful consideration for the patients' quality of life.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 02/1992; 23(1):229-38. · 4.52 Impact Factor