Article

Transforming growth factor beta2 promotes glucose carbon incorporation into nucleic acid ribose through the nonoxidative pentose cycle in lung epithelial carcinoma cells.

Harbor-UCLA Research and Education Institute, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, Torrance 90502, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.65). 04/2000; 60(5):1183-5.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The invasive transformation of A-459 lung epithelial carcinoma cells has been linked to the autocrine regulation of malignant phenotypic changes by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Here we demonstrate, using stable 13C glucose isotopes, that the transformed phenotype is characterized by decreased CO2 production via direct glucose oxidation but increased nucleic acid ribose synthesis through the nonoxidative reactions of the pentose cycle. Increased nucleic acid synthesis through the nonoxidative pentose cycle imparts the metabolic adaptation of nontransformed cells to the invasive phenotype that potentially explains the fundamental metabolic disturbance in tumor cells: highly increased nucleic acid synthesis despite hypoxia and decreased glucose oxidation.

1 Bookmark
 · 
49 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer cells are well documented to rewire their metabolism and energy production networks to support and enable rapid proliferation, continuous growth, survival in harsh conditions, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to cancer treatments. Since Dr. Otto Warburg's discovery about altered cancer cell metabolism in 1930, thousands of studies have shed light on various aspects of cancer metabolism with a common goal to find new ways for effectively eliminating tumor cells by targeting their energy metabolism. This review highlights the importance of the main features of cancer metabolism, summarizes recent remarkable advances in this field, and points out the potentials to translate these scientific findings into life-saving diagnosis and therapies to help cancer patients.
    Cancer biology & medicine. 03/2014; 11(1):1-19.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The resurgence of interest in cancer metabolism has linked alterations in the regulation and exploitation of metabolic pathways with an anabolic phenotype that increases biomass production for the replication of new daughter cells. To support the increase in the metabolic rate of cancer cells, a coordinated increase in the supply of nutrients, such as glucose and micronutrients functioning as enzyme cofactors is required. The majority of co-enzymes are water-soluble vitamins such as niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, riboflavin and thiamine (Vitamin B1). Continuous dietary intake of these micronutrients is essential for maintaining normal health. How cancer cells adaptively regulate cellular homeostasis of cofactors and how they can regulate expression and function of metabolic enzymes in cancer is underappreciated. Exploitation of cofactor-dependent metabolic pathways with the advent of anti-folates highlights the potential vulnerabilities and importance of vitamins in cancer biology. Vitamin supplementation products are easily accessible and patients often perceive them as safe and beneficial without full knowledge of their effects. Thus, understanding the significance of enzyme cofactors in cancer cell metabolism will provide for important dietary strategies and new molecular targets to reduce disease progression. Recent studies have demonstrated the significance of thiamine-dependent enzymes in cancer cell metabolism. Therefore, this review discusses the current knowledge in the alterations in thiamine availability, homeostasis, and exploitation of thiamine-dependent pathways by cancer cells.
    Cancer & Metabolism. 1(1).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which deregulated nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) signaling promote cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis are poorly understood. Using an integrated genomics and 13C-based targeted tracer fate association (TTFA) study, we found that NRF2 regulates miR-1 and miR-206 to direct carbon flux toward the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, reprogramming glucose metabolism. Sustained activation of NRF2 signaling in cancer cells attenuated miR-1 and miR-206 expression, leading to enhanced expression of PPP genes. Conversely, overexpression of miR-1 and miR-206 decreased the expression of metabolic genes and dramatically impaired NADPH production, ribose synthesis, and in vivo tumor growth in mice. Loss of NRF2 decreased the expression of the redox-sensitive histone deacetylase, HDAC4, resulting in increased expression of miR-1 and miR-206, and not only inhibiting PPP expression and activity but functioning as a regulatory feedback loop that repressed HDAC4 expression. In primary tumor samples, the expression of miR-1 and miR-206 was inversely correlated with PPP gene expression, and increased expression of NRF2-dependent genes was associated with poor prognosis. Our results demonstrate that microRNA-dependent (miRNA-dependent) regulation of the PPP via NRF2 and HDAC4 represents a novel link between miRNA regulation, glucose metabolism, and ROS homeostasis in cancer cells.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
20 Downloads
Available from
Jun 5, 2014