Effect of temperature modulation and bvg mutation of Bordetella bronchiseptica on adhesion, intracellular survival and cytotoxicity for swine alveolar macrophages.
ABSTRACT Bordetella bronchiseptica causes respiratory disease in swine, yet there are no studies examining the interaction of B. bronchiseptica with swine alveolar macrophages. A swine isolate of B. bronchiseptica was able to adhere to, and survive intracellularly in, swine alveolar macrophages, but the relative ability of the bacteria to accomplish these functions was dependent on its phenotypic phase and culture conditions. More bacteria were observed extracellularly as well as intracellularly by immunofluorescent staining when B. bronchiseptica was cultured at 23 degrees C as compared to 37 degrees C. However, more bacteria cultured at 37 degrees C were found surviving intracellularly after the macrophages were cultured with polymyxin B to kill extracellular bacteria. Similar results were seen in experiments performed with an isogenic Bvg(-) phase-locked mutant of B. bronchiseptica cultured at 37 or 23 degrees C, indicating that another temperature dependent mechanism in addition to bvg may play a role in adhesion and intracellular survival. B. bronchiseptica was cytotoxic for swine alveolar macrophages in the Bvg(+) phase only. The cytotoxicity of B. bronchiseptica for alveolar macrophages, and its ability to survive phagocytosis, are no doubt important to escape from immune clearance mechanisms and establish infection, and could leave the host susceptible to secondary respiratory pathogens.
Article: In vitro and in vivo characterization of a Bordetella bronchiseptica mutant strain with a deep rough lipopolysaccharide structure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bordetella bronchiseptica is closely related to Bordetella pertussis, which produces respiratory disease primarily in mammals other than humans. However, its importance as a human pathogen is being increasingly recognized. Although a large amount of research on Bordetella has been generated regarding protein virulence factors, the participation of the surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during B. bronchiseptica infection is less understood. To get a better insight into this matter, we constructed and characterized the behavior of an LPS mutant with the deepest possible rough phenotype. We generated the defective mutant B. bronchiseptica LP39 on the waaC gene, which codes for a heptosyl transferase involved in the biosynthesis of the core region of the LPS molecule. Although in B. bronchiseptica LP39 the production of the principal virulence determinants adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin persisted, the quantity of the two latter factors was diminished, with the levels of pertactin being the most greatly affected. Furthermore, the LPS of B. bronchiseptica LP39 did not react with sera obtained from mice that had been infected with the parental strain, indicating that this defective LPS is immunologically different from the wild-type LPS. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the ability to colonize the respiratory tract is reduced in the mutant, being effectively cleared from lungs within 5 days, whereas the parental strain survived at least for 30 days. In vitro experiments have demonstrated that, although B. bronchiseptica LP39 was impaired for adhesion to human epithelial cells, it is still able to survive within the host cells as efficiently as the parental strain. These results seem to indicate that the deep rough form of B. bronchiseptica LPS cannot represent a dominant phenotype at the first stage of colonization. Since isolates with deep rough LPS phenotype have already been obtained from human B. bronchiseptica chronic infections, the possibility that this phenotype arises as a consequence of selection pressure within the host at a late stage of the infection process is discussed.Infection and Immunity 05/2002; 70(4):1791-8. · 4.16 Impact Factor