Does intraoperative hetastarch administration increase blood loss and transfusion requirements after cardiac surgery?
ABSTRACT Hetastarch is used for intravascular volume expansion in cardiac surgery. Studies show conflicting effects of intraoperative hetastarch administration on postoperative bleeding. Hetastarch was routinely used for volume expansion during cardiovascular surgeries at our institution until its use was discontinued intraoperatively. We performed a retrospective chart review on patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting, valve repair or replacement requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 444), 234 of which received intraoperative hetastarch and 210 did not. There was no difference in demographics, cardiac surgery, or cardiopulmonary bypass duration between the two groups. Blood loss for 0-4 h postoperatively was 377 +/- 244 mL in the group not receiving hetastarch compared with 515 +/- 336 mL in the group that received hetastarch (P < 0.001). For 0-24 h postoperatively, blood loss was 923 +/- 473 mL versus 1,283 +/- 686 mL in the absence and presence of hetastarch, respectively (P < 0.001). Allogeneic transfusion requirements (cryoprecipitate, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets) were larger in the hetastarch group (all P < 0.001). Nearly all (99%) patients in the hetastarch group received less than the manufacturer's recommended dose (20 mL/kg) of hetastarch. IMPLICATIONS: Our large retrospective study suggests that intraoperative use of hetastarch in primary cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass may increase bleeding and transfusion requirements. A large prospective study is needed to determine if intraoperative administration of hetastarch should be avoided during cardiovascular surgery.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of hydroxyethyl starch on bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass were determined. A meta-analysis was performed of postoperative blood loss in randomized clinical trials of hydroxyethyl starch versus albumin for fluid management in adult cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Impacts of hydroxyethyl starch molecular weight and molar substitution were assessed. Randomized trials directly comparing different hydroxyethyl starch solutions were also included. Eighteen trials with 970 total patients were included. Compared with albumin, hydroxyethyl starch increased postoperative blood loss by 33.3% of a pooled SD (95% confidence interval, 18.2%-48.3%; P < .001). Risk of reoperation for bleeding was more than doubled by hydroxyethyl starch (relative risk, 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-4.40; P = .020). Hydroxyethyl starch increased transfusion of red blood cells by 28.4% of a pooled SD (95% confidence interval, 12.2%-44.6%; P < .001), of fresh-frozen plasma by 30.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.0%-53.1%; P = .008), and of platelets by 29.8% (95% confidence interval, 3.4%-56.2%; P = .027). None of these effects differed significantly between hydroxyethyl starch 450/0.7 and 200/0.5. Insufficient data were available for hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 versus albumin; however, no significant differences were detected in head-to-head comparisons of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 with 200/0.5. Albumin improved hemodynamics. There were no differences in fluid balance, ventilator time, intensive care unit stay, or mortality. Hydroxyethyl starch increased blood loss, reoperation for bleeding, and blood product transfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass. There was no evidence that these risks could be mitigated by lower molecular weight and substitution.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 05/2012; 144(1):223-30. · 3.41 Impact Factor
Article: Safety of plasma volume expanders.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypovolemia from a range of etiologies can lead to severe morbidity and mortality unless blood volume and tissue perfusion are restored. The treatment of hypovolemia has included the improvement and restoration of blood volume loss by the intravenous infusion of plasma expanding therapeutic agents. These have included crystalloid and/or colloid solutions, and a brisk controversy as to which modality is better has engaged therapeutics for the past 30 years. In addition, those favoring either modality have debated which crystalloid, and which colloid, is better. This area was given a dramatic turn a decade ago when a Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that albumin, a historically important plasma expander, resulted in increased mortality when administered to critically ill patients. Although subsequently modified by other studies, the Cochrane meta-analysis has served to generate an ongoing interest in the safety of plasma expanders. This review will assess the safety of these therapies from the viewpoint of the heterogeneous range of clinical indications for which they are used.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2011; 51(3):292-300. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: /st>Infusion of 5% human albumin (HA) and 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES) during cardiac surgery expand circulating volume to a greater extent than crystalloids and would be suitable for a restrictive fluid therapy regimen. However, HA and HES may affect blood coagulation and could contribute to increased transfusion requirements. /st>We randomly assigned 240 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery to receive up to 50 ml kg(-1) day(-1) of either HA, HES, or Ringer's lactate (RL) as the main infusion fluid perioperatively. Study solutions were supplied in identical bottles dressed in opaque covers. The primary outcome was chest tube drainage over 24 h. Blood transfusions, thromboelastometry variables, perioperative fluid balance, renal function, mortality, intensive care unit, and hospital stay were also assessed. /st>The median cumulative blood loss was not different between the groups (HA: 835, HES: 700, and RL: 670 ml). However, 35% of RL patients required blood products, compared with 62% (HA) and 64% (HES group; P=0.0003). Significantly, more study solution had to be administered in the RL group compared with the colloid groups. Total perioperative fluid balance was least positive in the HA group [6.2 (2.5) litre] compared with the HES [7.4 (3.0) litre] and RL [8.3 (2.8) litre] groups (P<0.0001). Both colloids affected clot formation and clot strength and caused slight increases in serum creatinine. /st>Despite equal blood loss from chest drains, both colloids interfered with blood coagulation and produced greater haemodilution, which was associated with more transfusion of blood products compared with crystalloid use only.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 10/2013; · 4.24 Impact Factor