Phosphorylated morpholine acetal human neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists as water-soluble prodrugs.
ABSTRACT The regioselective dibenzylphosphorylation of 2 followed by catalytic reduction in the presence of N-methyl-D-glucamine afforded 2-(S)-(1-(R)-(3, 5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)ethoxy)-3-(S)-(4-fluoro)phenyl-4-(5-(2- phosphoryl-3-oxo-4H,-1,2,4-triazolo)methylmorpholine, bis(N-methyl-D-glucamine) salt, 11. Incubation of 11 in rat, dog, and human plasma and in human hepatic subcellular fractions in vitro indicated that conversion to 2 would be expected to occur in vivo most readily in humans during hepatic circulation. Conversion of 11 to 2 occurred rapidly in vivo in the rat and dog with the levels of 11 being undetectable within 5 min after 1 and 8 mg/kg doses iv in the rat and within 15 min after 0.5, 2, and 32 mg/kg doses iv in the dog. Compound 11 has a 10-fold lower affinity for the human NK-1 receptor as compared to 2, but it is functionally equivalent to 2 in preclinical models of NK-1-mediated inflammation in the guinea pig and cisplatin-induced emesis in the ferret, indicating that 11 acts as a prodrug of 2. Based in part on these data, 11 was identified as a novel, water-soluble prodrug of the clinical candidate 2 suitable for intravenous administration in humans.
Article: Cisplatin-induced emesis: systematic review and meta-analysis of the ferret model and the effects of 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ferret cisplatin emesis model has been used for ~30 years and enabled identification of clinically used anti-emetics. We provide an objective assessment of this model including efficacy of 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists to assess its translational validity. A systematic review identified available evidence and was used to perform meta-analyses. Of 182 potentially relevant publications, 115 reported cisplatin-induced emesis in ferrets and 68 were included in the analysis. The majority (n = 53) used a 10 mg kg⁻¹ dose to induce acute emesis, which peaked after 2 h. More recent studies (n = 11) also used 5 mg kg⁻¹, which induced a biphasic response peaking at 12 h and 48 h. Overall, 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists reduced cisplatin (5 mg kg⁻¹) emesis by 68% (45-91%) during the acute phase (day 1) and by 67% (48-86%) and 53% (38-68%, all P < 0.001), during the delayed phase (days 2, 3). In an analysis focused on the acute phase, the efficacy of ondansetron was dependent on the dosage and observation period but not on the dose of cisplatin. Our analysis enabled novel findings to be extracted from the literature including factors which may impact on the applicability of preclinical results to humans. It reveals that the efficacy of ondansetron is similar against low and high doses of cisplatin. Additionally, we showed that 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists have a similar efficacy during acute and delayed emesis, which provides a novel insight into the pharmacology of delayed emesis in the ferret.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 03/2011; 67(3):667-86. · 2.83 Impact Factor