Phosphorylated morpholine acetal human neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists as water-soluble prodrugs.
ABSTRACT The regioselective dibenzylphosphorylation of 2 followed by catalytic reduction in the presence of N-methyl-D-glucamine afforded 2-(S)-(1-(R)-(3, 5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)ethoxy)-3-(S)-(4-fluoro)phenyl-4-(5-(2- phosphoryl-3-oxo-4H,-1,2,4-triazolo)methylmorpholine, bis(N-methyl-D-glucamine) salt, 11. Incubation of 11 in rat, dog, and human plasma and in human hepatic subcellular fractions in vitro indicated that conversion to 2 would be expected to occur in vivo most readily in humans during hepatic circulation. Conversion of 11 to 2 occurred rapidly in vivo in the rat and dog with the levels of 11 being undetectable within 5 min after 1 and 8 mg/kg doses iv in the rat and within 15 min after 0.5, 2, and 32 mg/kg doses iv in the dog. Compound 11 has a 10-fold lower affinity for the human NK-1 receptor as compared to 2, but it is functionally equivalent to 2 in preclinical models of NK-1-mediated inflammation in the guinea pig and cisplatin-induced emesis in the ferret, indicating that 11 acts as a prodrug of 2. Based in part on these data, 11 was identified as a novel, water-soluble prodrug of the clinical candidate 2 suitable for intravenous administration in humans.
- SourceAvailable from: Hirohisa Yoshizawa[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background We evaluated the efficacy and safety of single-dose fosaprepitant in combination with intravenous granisetron and dexamethasone.Patients and methodsPatients receiving chemotherapy including cisplatin (≥70 mg/m(2)) were eligible. A total of 347 patients (21% had received cisplatin with vomiting) were enrolled in this trial to receive the fosaprepitant regimen (fosaprepitant 150 mg, intravenous, on day 1 in combination with granisetron, 40 μg/kg, intravenous, on day 1 and dexamethasone, intravenous, on days 1-3) or the control regimen (placebo plus intravenous granisetron and dexamethasone). The primary end point was the percentage of patients who had a complete response (no emesis and no rescue therapy) over the entire treatment course (0-120 h).ResultsThe percentage of patients with a complete response was significantly higher in the fosaprepitant group than in the control group (64% versus 47%, P = 0.0015). The fosaprepitant regimen was more effective than the control regimen in both the acute (0-24 h postchemotherapy) phase (94% versus 81%, P = 0.0006) and the delayed (24-120 h postchemotherapy) phase (65% versus 49%, P = 0.0025).Conclusions Single-dose fosaprepitant used in combination with granisetron and dexamethasone was well-tolerated and effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including high-dose cisplatin.Annals of Oncology 10/2012; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The polyether antibiotic Lasalocid acid has been converted to its Mannich base derivative by a chemoselective one-pot reaction with formaldehyde and morpholine through the decarboxylation process. Spectroscopic studies of the structure of this new derivative have shown that in this ortho-phenol Mannich base the OH⋯N intarmolecular hydrogen bond is present. The compound forms complexes with Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) cations of exclusively 1:1 stoichiometry. The structures of these complexes have been studied and visualized by semi-empirical calculation based on results of spectrometric and spectroscopic investigation. It is demonstrated that in contrast to Lasalocid acid the novel Mannich type derivative forms preferential complexes with Li(+) cation.Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 12/2012; 104C:497-504. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nausea and vomiting are major side effects of chemotherapy and one key reason for non-compliance with cancer treatment. The introduction of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the 1990s was a major advance in the prevention of acute emesis, and highlighted the critical role of serotonin in the emetic response. The next major advance in the treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) occurred in 2003 with the introduction of aprepitant, a tachykinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist. Aprepitant not only reduced acute emesis but also helped in the reduction of delayed emesis. Also in 2003, palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist became available. Unlike the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, palonosetron demonstrated efficacy in preventing both acute and delayed emesis. This review focuses on the mechanism of action of 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists in acute and delayed CINV prevention. We discuss first, the medicinal chemistry that led to the discovery of these antagonists to underline their common structural features. Second, we discuss their performance in the clinic and what it tells us about the emetic response. Finally, we present recent mechanistic studies that help provide a rationale for efficacy differences between palonosetron and other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the clinic. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that palonosetron can inhibit substance P-mediated responses, presumably through its unique interactions with the 5-HT3 receptor. The crossroads of acute and delayed emesis seem to include interactions among the 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor signaling pathways and inhibitions of these interactions could lead to improved treatment of CINV.European journal of pharmacology 10/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor