1,2,4-Triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one: a versatile tool for the synthesis of potent and selective adenosine receptor antagonists.
ABSTRACT 4-Amino-6-benzylamino-1,2-dihydro-2-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolo[4, 3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (1) has been found to be an A(2A) versus A(1) selective antagonist (Colotta et al. Arch. Pharm. Pharm. Med. Chem. 1999, 332, 39-41). In this paper some novel triazoloquinoxalin-1-ones 4-25 bearing different substituents on the 2-phenyl and/or 4-amino moiety of the parent 4-amino-1, 2-dihydro-2-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (3) have been synthesized and tested in radioligand binding assays at bovine A(1) and A(2A) and cloned human A(3) adenosine receptors (AR). Moreover, the binding activities at the above-mentioned AR subtypes of the 1,4-dione parent compounds 26-31 and their 5-N-alkyl derivatives 33-37 were also evaluated. The substituent on the 2-phenyl ring exerted a different effect on AR subtypes, while replacement of a hydrogen atom of the 4-amino group with suitable substituents yielded selective A(1) or A(3) antagonists. Replacement of a hydrogen atom of the 4-NH(2) with an acyl group, or replacement of the whole 4-NH(2) with a 4-oxo moiety, shifted the binding activity toward the A(3) AR. The binding results allowed elucidation of the structural requirements for the binding of these novel tricyclic derivatives at each receptor subtype. In particular, A(1) and A(2A) binding required the presence of a proton donor group at position-4, while for A(3) affinity the presence of a proton acceptor in this same region was of paramount importance.
- SourceAvailable from: Diego Dal Ben[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new series of 8-substituted 9-ethyladenine derivatives has been synthesized and tested at rat and human adenosine receptors. Binding data demonstrates that some compounds could represent new tools suitable for in vivo studies in rat models of Parkinson's disease and for the design of new molecules with improved affinity and selectivity at human AA(2A)R.Clinical evidence has demonstrated that AA(2A)R antagonists could be an alternative approach to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Recently, three 9-ethyladenine derivatives bearing a bromine atom, an ethoxy group, and a furyl ring, respectively, in the 8-position have been reported to ameliorate motor deficits in rat Parkinson's disease models, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for these compounds. Starting from these observations, a new series of 9-ethyladenine derivatives, bearing different substituents such as halogens, alkoxy groups, aromatic and heteroaromatic rings in the 8-position, were synthesized. Radioligand binding assays demonstrated that some of the new compounds bind rat AA(2A)R with higher affinity than the previously reported congeners and that there is a good correlation between binding to rat and human receptors. Hence, the new molecules could represent new tools suitable for the in vivo studies in rat models of Parkinson's disease. Finally, a molecular docking analysis of the compounds was performed using a homology model of rat AA(2A)R, built using the human crystal structure as the template, and results are in agreement with the binding data.ChemMedChem 05/2009; 4(6):1010-9. · 2.84 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: One of the major hurdles in the development of safe and effective drugs targeting G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is finding ligands that are highly selective for a specific receptor subtype. Structural understanding of subtype-specific binding pocket variations and ligand-receptor interactions may greatly facilitate design of selective ligands. To gain insights into the structural basis of ligand subtype selectivity within the family of adenosine receptors (AR: A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3)) we generated 3D models of all four subtypes using the recently determined crystal structure of the A(A2)AR as a template, and employing the methodology of ligand-guided receptor optimization for refinement. This approach produced 3D conformational models of AR subtypes that effectively explain binding modes and subtype selectivity for a diverse set of known AR antagonists. Analysis of the subtype-specific ligand-receptor interactions allowed identification of the major determinants of ligand selectivity, which may facilitate discovery of more efficient drug candidates.Neuropharmacology 01/2011; 60(1):108-15. · 4.11 Impact Factor
- ChemInform 01/2010; 31(26).