1,2,4-Triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one: a versatile tool for the synthesis of potent and selective adenosine receptor antagonists.
ABSTRACT 4-Amino-6-benzylamino-1,2-dihydro-2-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolo[4, 3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (1) has been found to be an A(2A) versus A(1) selective antagonist (Colotta et al. Arch. Pharm. Pharm. Med. Chem. 1999, 332, 39-41). In this paper some novel triazoloquinoxalin-1-ones 4-25 bearing different substituents on the 2-phenyl and/or 4-amino moiety of the parent 4-amino-1, 2-dihydro-2-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (3) have been synthesized and tested in radioligand binding assays at bovine A(1) and A(2A) and cloned human A(3) adenosine receptors (AR). Moreover, the binding activities at the above-mentioned AR subtypes of the 1,4-dione parent compounds 26-31 and their 5-N-alkyl derivatives 33-37 were also evaluated. The substituent on the 2-phenyl ring exerted a different effect on AR subtypes, while replacement of a hydrogen atom of the 4-amino group with suitable substituents yielded selective A(1) or A(3) antagonists. Replacement of a hydrogen atom of the 4-NH(2) with an acyl group, or replacement of the whole 4-NH(2) with a 4-oxo moiety, shifted the binding activity toward the A(3) AR. The binding results allowed elucidation of the structural requirements for the binding of these novel tricyclic derivatives at each receptor subtype. In particular, A(1) and A(2A) binding required the presence of a proton donor group at position-4, while for A(3) affinity the presence of a proton acceptor in this same region was of paramount importance.
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ABSTRACT: Interest is increasing in developing fluorescent ligands for characterization of adenosine receptors (ARs), which hold a promise of usefulness in the drug discovery process. The size of a strategically labeled AR ligand can be greatly increased after the attachment of a fluorophore. The choice of dye moiety (e.g. Alexa Fluor 488), attachment point and linker length can alter the selectivity and potency of the parent molecule. Fluorescent derivatives of adenosine agonists and antagonists (e.g. XAC and other heterocyclic antagonist scaffolds) have been synthesized and characterized pharmacologically. Some are useful AR probes for flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence polarization, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and scanning confocal microscopy. Thus, the approach of fluorescent labeled GPCR ligands, including those for ARs, is a growing dynamic research field.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 01/2013; 23(1):26-36. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports the study of new 2-phenyl- and 2-methylpyrazolo[3,4-c]quinolin-4-ones (series A) and 4-amines (series B), designed as adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists. The synthesized compounds bear at the 6-position various groups, with different lipophilicity and steric hindrance, that were thought to increase human A(1) and A(2A) AR affinities and selectivities, with respect to those of the parent 6-unsubstituted compounds. In series A, this modification was not tolerated since it reduced AR affinity, while in series B it shifted the binding towards the hA(1) subtype. To rationalize the observed structure-affinity relationships, molecular docking studies at A(2A)AR-based homology models of the A(1) and A(3) ARs and at the A(2A)AR crystal structure were carried out.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 06/2011; 19(12):3757-68. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adenosine is an ubiquitous local modulator that regulates various physiological and pathological functions by stimulating four membrane receptors, namely A(1) , A(2A) , A(2B) , and A(3) . Among these G protein-coupled receptors, the A(3) subtype is found mainly in the lung, liver, heart, eyes, and brain in our body. It has been associated with cerebroprotection and cardioprotection, as well as modulation of cellular growth upon its selective activation. On the other hand, its inhibition by selective antagonists has been reported to be potentially useful in the treatment of pathological conditions including glaucoma, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. In this review, we focused on the pharmacology and the therapeutic implications of the human (h)A(3) adenosine receptor (AR), together with an overview on the progress of hA(3) AR agonists, antagonists, allosteric modulators, and radioligands, as well as on the recent advances pertaining to the computational approaches (e.g., quantitative structure-activity relationships, homology modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulations) applied to the modeling of hA(3) AR and drug design. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev.Medicinal Research Reviews 11/2011; · 9.58 Impact Factor