Matrix metalloproteinases: multifunctional contributors to tumor progression.
ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix degrading proteinases. Owing to their matrix-degrading abilities and high expression in advanced tumors, MMPs were originally implicated in invasion and metastasis during cancer progression. However, recent work extends a role for MMPs during multiple stages of tumor progression to include other functions such as growth, angiogenesis and migration. Based on studies in animal models implicating MMP activity in cancer, synthetic MMP inhibitors are currently being tested in a clinical setting.
Article: Knockdown of aberrantly expressed nuclear localized decorin attenuates tumour angiogenesis related mediators in oral cancer progression model in vitro.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oral cancer accounts for roughly 3% of cancer cases in the world with about 350,000 newly reported cases annually and a 5-year survival rate of only 50%. Majority of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that originate in the oral mucosal epithelial linings. We have previously shown that in human malignant squamous cells carcinoma (SCC-25) as well as in dysplastic oral keratinocytes (DOK), a small leucine-rich multifunctional proteoglycan decorin is aberrantly expressed and localized in the nucleus where it interacts with nuclear epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Post-transcriptional silencing of nuclear decorin significantly reduced IL-8 and IL8-dependent migration and invasion in these dysplastic and malignant oral epithelia. The objective of this study was to further examine the effects of nuclear decorin silencing on angiogenesis and angiogenesis related mediators in this oral cancer progression cell line model. We have used multiplex PCR, western blotting, and in vitro endothelial tube formation assay to study angiogenesis and related pathways in nuclear decorin silenced (stable knockdown) DOK and SCC-25 cells. Nuclear decorin knockdown resulted in significant down regulation of IL-8 expression, however IL-10, and TGF-β expression was not affected in either DOK or SCC25 cells as measured by multiplex RT PCR. IL-8 receptor CXCR 1 and 2 expression was slightly lower in nuclear decorin silenced cells indicating a contributing mechanism in previously shown reduced IL-8 mediated migration and invasion phenotype in these cells. IL-8 is known to induce Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) which not only plays a role in tumour migration and invasion but also induces angiogenic switch. We found MMP9 to be significantly reduced in nuclear decorin silenced dysplastic and malignant oral epithelia. Other potent angiogenic mediators, VEGF189 and ANG-1 were either significantly reduced or completely abrogated in these cells. Angiogenesis as measured by endothelial tube-like formations of HUVEC cells was reduced by almost 50 percent when HUVECs were incubated in the presence of conditioned medium form nuclear decorin silenced dysplastic and malignant cell lines as compared to respective controls. Together these results indicate that aberrantly expressed nuclear localized decorin strongly influences angiogenic potential of dysplastic and malignant oral epithelial cells.Head & Neck Oncology 04/2012; 4:11. · 3.13 Impact Factor
Article: Downregulation of Cyclophilin A by siRNA diminishes non-small cell lung cancer cell growth and metastasis via the regulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a cytosolic protein possessing peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity that was recently reported to be overexpressed in several cancers. Here, we explored the biology and molecular mechanism of CypA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: The expression of CypA in human NSCLC cell lines was detected by real-time reverse transcription PCR. The RNA interference-mediated knockdown of CypA was established in two NSCLC cell lines (95C and A549). 239836 CypA inhibitor was also used to suppress CypA activity. Tumorigenesis was assessed based on cellular proliferation, colony formation assays, and anchorage-independent growth assays; metastasis was assessed based on wound healing and transwell assays. RESULTS: Suppression of CypA expression inhibited the cell growth and colony formation of A549 and 95C cells. CypA knockdown resulted in the inhibition of cell motility and invasion. Significantly, we show for the first time that CypA increased NSCLC cell invasion by regulating the activity of secreted matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9). Likewise, suppression of CypA with 239836 CypA inhibitor decreased cell proliferation and MMP9 activity. CONCLUSIONS: The suppression of CypA expression was correlated with decreased NSCLC cell tumorigenesis and metastasis.BMC Cancer 10/2012; 12(1):442. · 3.01 Impact Factor
Article: Matrix metalloproteinase-2 promotes αvβ3 integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of human melanoma cells by cleaving fibronectin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a key regulator in the migration of tumor cells. αvβ3 integrin has been reported to play a critical role in cell adhesion and regulate the migration of tumor cells by promoting MMP-2 activation. However, little is known about the effects of MMP-2 on αvβ3 integrin activity and αvβ3 integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of tumor cells. Human melanoma cells were seeded using an agarose drop model and/or subjected to in vitro analysis using immunofluorescence, adhesion, migration and invasion assays to investigate the relationship between active MMP-2 and αvβ3 integrin during the adhesion and migration of the tumor cells. We found that MMP-2 was localized at the leading edge of spreading cells before αvβ3 integrin. αvβ3 integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of the tumor cells were inhibited by a MMP-2 inhibitor. MMP-2 cleaved fibronectin into small fragments, which promoted the adhesion and migration of the tumor cells. MMP-2 cleaves fibronectin into small fragments to enhance the adhesion and migration of human melanoma cells mediated by αvβ3 integrin. These results indicate that MMP-2 may guide the direction of the tumor cell migration.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41591. · 4.09 Impact Factor