Further reduction in lead exposure in women in general populations in Japan in the 1990s, and comparison with levels in east and south-east Asia.
ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to elucidate the current level of environmental lead (Pb) exposure of women in general population in Japan, where the use of organic Pb in automobile gasoline was phased out from 1973 to reach a zero level early in the 1980s.
A survey was conducted in 27 sites throughout Japan from 1991 to 1997. Five hundred and eighty-eight non-smoking women from the sites offered 24-h food duplicate, peripheral blood, and spot urine samples. Pb in food duplicates (Pb-F), blood (Pb-B), and urine (Pb-U) were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results of Pb-F and Pb-B were compared with observations from a study conducted from 1977 to 1981 on 339 women at the same sites. Log-normal distribution was assumed for the evaluation of the results.
Geometric means (GMs) of Pb-F, Pb-B, and Pb-U in the 1991-1997 study were 9.0 microg/day, 20.2 microg/l, and 2.18 microg/g creatinine, respectively. The values for Pb-F and Pb-B were substantially lower than the values (32.8 microg/day for Pb-F and 31.7 microg/l for Pb-B) obtained in the 1977-1981 study, which were already low when compared internationally. Cd-U values in the period from 1991 to 1997 also appeared to be among the lowest in the world. Analysis for time-dependent changes in Pb-U was, however, not possible at the time of this study because no values were available for the period from 1977 to 1981.
Substantial reductions from 1977-1981 levels in environmental Pb exposure were observed among the study populations in Japan. Current exposure levels appear to be lower than those in other parts of Asia, the USA, and Europe.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dietary intakes of calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) were investigated in 227 women (mostly housewives) in 12 regions in Japan in 1991-1993 by the 24-hour food duplicate method. Nine regions out of 12 had been previously studied in 1977-1982. Utilizing Standard Food Composition database, mean Ca and Fe-intakes in 1991-1993 were estimated to be 602 and 10.4 mg/day, respectively; the former was barely sufficient and the latter was below sufficiency when compared with the Recommended Daily Allowance in Japan for pre-menopausal women. Ca- and Fe-intake did not increase in the 10-year period. Further analysis after classification of the women into three groups of farmers in Okinawa, farmers in Mainland Japan and urban residents showed that Ca and Fe insufficiency was most evident among Okinawa farmers. The leading Ca sources were milk, pulse, vegetables and fish-shellfish, but consumption of milk was generally low, especially among Okinawa farmers. Pulse, vegetables and fish-shellfish were 3 major Fe sources; Okinawa farmers depended more on vegetables and less on fish-shellfish.Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 10/1996; 10(3):133-8. · 1.96 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An analytical method has been established to determine the concentration of antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), Palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), tellurium (Te), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl) and tungsten (W) in urine. The aim was to develop a method which is equally suitable for the determination of environmentally as well as occupationally caused metal excretion. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of metals. Calibration was done using aqueous solutions and standard addition respectively. Urine samples of 14 persons occupationally non-exposed to metals were analysed. With the exception of Pt and Bi all the metals were found in these urine samples. The detection limits for these metals lie between 5 and 50 ng/l. For some metals, which are important from an occupational as well as an environmental viewpoint, ICP-MS is more sensitive than atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). ICP-MS, moreover, is welcome as a reference method for AAS with the additional advantage of multi-element measurement.International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 02/1997; 69(3):219-23. · 2.10 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To describe trends in blood lead levels for the US population and selected population subgroups during the time period between 1976 and 1991. Two nationally representative cross-sectional surveys and one cross-sectional survey representing Mexican Americans in the southwestern United States. Participants in two national surveys that included blood lead measurements: the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976 to 1980 (n = 9832), and phase 1 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1991 (n = 12,119). Also, Mexican Americans participating in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982 to 1984 (n = 5682). The mean blood lead level of persons aged 1 to 74 years dropped 78%, from 0.62 to 0.14 mumol/L (12.8 to 2.8 micrograms/dL). Mean blood lead levels of children aged 1 to 5 years declined 77% (0.66 to 0.15 mumol/L [13.7 to 3.2 micrograms/dL]) for non-Hispanic white children and 72% (0.97 to 0.27 mumol/L [20.2 to 5.6 micrograms/dL]) for non-Hispanic black children. The prevalence of blood lead levels 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL) or greater for children aged 1 to 5 years declined from 85.0% to 5.5% for non-Hispanic white children and from 97.7% to 20.6% for non-Hispanic black children. Similar declines were found in population subgroups defined by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income level, and urban status. Mexican Americans also showed similar declines in blood lead levels of a slightly smaller magnitude over a shorter time. The results demonstrate a substantial decline in blood lead levels of the entire US population and within selected subgroups of the population. The major cause of the observed decline in blood lead levels is most likely the removal of 99.8% of lead from gasoline and the removal of lead from soldered cans. Although these data indicate major progress in reducing lead exposure, they also show that the same sociodemographic factors continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels, including younger age, male sex, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, and low income level. Future efforts to remove other lead sources (eg, paint, dust, and soil) are needed but will be more difficult than removing lead from gasoline and soldered cans.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/1994; 272(4):284-91. · 29.98 Impact Factor