In schizophrenic patients, multiple immune abnormalities have been reported, including increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. There is some evidence that antipsychotic drugs may have immunosuppressive effects. The aim of this study was to examine the in-vitro effects of different concentrations of antipsychotic agents on cytokine production by human whole blood. We examined the effects of clozapine and haloperidol, 10(-4), 10(-6) and 10(-8)M, on the unstimulated and stimulated (lipopolysaccharide+phytohemagglutinin) production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), and the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Clozapine, 10(-6) and 10(-8)M, and haloperidol, 10(-4), 10(-6), and 10(-8)M, significantly increased the unstimulated and stimulated production of IL-1RA. Clozapine 10(-6)M significantly increased the stimulated production of IFNgamma. Clozapine 10(-4)M significantly suppressed the unstimulated production of IL-6 and IL-1RA and the stimulated production of IL-6, IL-10, IFNgamma and IL-1RA. The results suggest that both clozapine and haloperidol, at concentrations within the therapeutic range, may exert immunosuppressive effects through an enhanced production of IL-1RA.
"To date, there have been conflicting reports regarding the effects of antipsychotics on cytokine levels, and no antipsychotic has been shown to have consistent anti-inflammatory action (Drzyzga et al., 2006). For example , clozapine and haloperidol significantly suppress the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ in vitro (Leykin et al., 1997; Song et al., 2000) and IL-2 in vivo (Kim et al., 2000). These inconsistent or contradictory effects of antipsychotics on pro-inflammatory cytokines may arise from the aforementioned adverse metabolic effects. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial
functioning. Although novel antipsychotics have been developed, the negative and cognitive symptoms of
schizophrenia are still unresponsive to pharmacotherapy. The high level of social impairment and a chronic
deteriorating course suggest that schizophrenia likely has neurodegenerative characteristics.
Inflammatory markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines are well-known etiological factors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Inflammation in the central nervous systemis closely related to neurodegeneration. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglia also play an important role in the inflammatory process in the CNS. Uncontrolled activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglia can induce schizophrenia in tandem with genetic vulnerability and glutamatergic neurotransmitters. Several studies have investigated the possible effects of antipsychotics on inflammation and neurogenesis. Additionally, anti-inflammatory adjuvant therapy has been under investigation as a treatment option for schizophrenia. Further studies should consider the confounding effects
of systemic factors such as metabolic syndrome and smoking. In addition, the unique mechanisms by which
pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the etiopathology of schizophrenia should be investigated. In this article,
we aimed to review(1) major findings regarding neuroinflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine alterations in
schizophrenia, (2) interactions between neuroinflammation and neurogenesis as possible neural substrates for
schizophrenia, and (3) novel pharmacological approaches.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.06.008 · 3.69 Impact Factor
"There is some evidence that antipsychotic drugs may have immunosuppressive effects. For example, in vitro studies have observed that haloperidol and clozapine decrease cytokine secretion in lymphocytes from both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (Song et al. 2000). In the current study, patients with chronic schizophrenia were on long-term antipsychotic treatment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
A substantial body of evidence implicates TNF-alpha (TNFα) and TNFα-related signaling pathways in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The current study examined the relationship between TNFα serum levels and both psychopathological as well as cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia.
Materials and methods
Serum TNFα levels were assessed in 89 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and compared to 43 healthy control subjects matched for age and gender. Schizophrenic symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and serum TNFα levels were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
TNFα levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic schizophrenia relative to healthy control subjects (p
"The limitation of this study is that all schizophrenia patients were treated with haloperidol, typical neuroleptic. Haloperidol has been shown to decrease production of many inflammatory cytokines and cytokine receptors or have no effect on their production (Akiyama, 1999; Pollmächer et al., 1997; Leykin et al., 1997; Moots et al., 1999; Song et al., 2000; Kowalski et al., 2001; Szuster- Ciesielska et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2004, 2009; Romero et al., 2007; Kato et al., 2011). Only in one report increased interleukin- 12 levels after treatment with haloperidol in the first episode psychosis have been detected (Crespo-Facorro et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered immune response, including low-grade inflammatory processes, is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, a chronic psychiatric disorder with complex etiology. Distinct gene variants of a number of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines together with their receptors associate with this disorder. Interleukin-2 receptor gamma (IL-2RG) represents an important signaling component of many interleukin receptors and so far, no data on the functional state of this receptor in schizophrenia have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate mRNA expression of the IL2RG gene (IL2RG) in schizophrenia patients in comparison with healthy subjects (controls). Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 66 schizophrenia patients and 99 healthy subjects of Armenian population. The mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using PSMB2 as housekeeping gene. IL2RG mRNA expression was upregulated in peripheral blood of patients in comparison with controls (patients vs. controls, median [interquartile range]: 2.080 [3.428-1.046] vs. 0.324 [0.856-0.000], p<0.0001). In conclusion, our findings suggest that over-expression of the IL2RG gene may be implicated in altered immune response in schizophrenia and contribute to the pathomechanisms of this disorder.
Psychiatry Research 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.03.020 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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