Immunosuppressive effects of clozapine and haloperidol: enhanced production of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.
ABSTRACT In schizophrenic patients, multiple immune abnormalities have been reported, including increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. There is some evidence that antipsychotic drugs may have immunosuppressive effects. The aim of this study was to examine the in-vitro effects of different concentrations of antipsychotic agents on cytokine production by human whole blood. We examined the effects of clozapine and haloperidol, 10(-4), 10(-6) and 10(-8)M, on the unstimulated and stimulated (lipopolysaccharide+phytohemagglutinin) production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), and the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Clozapine, 10(-6) and 10(-8)M, and haloperidol, 10(-4), 10(-6), and 10(-8)M, significantly increased the unstimulated and stimulated production of IL-1RA. Clozapine 10(-6)M significantly increased the stimulated production of IFNgamma. Clozapine 10(-4)M significantly suppressed the unstimulated production of IL-6 and IL-1RA and the stimulated production of IL-6, IL-10, IFNgamma and IL-1RA. The results suggest that both clozapine and haloperidol, at concentrations within the therapeutic range, may exert immunosuppressive effects through an enhanced production of IL-1RA.
- SourceAvailable from: Li Tian[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A substantial body of evidence implicates TNF-alpha (TNFα) and TNFα-related signaling pathways in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The current study examined the relationship between TNFα serum levels and both psychopathological as well as cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia.Psychopharmacology 06/2014; 232(1). DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3650-y · 3.99 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Altered immune response, including low-grade inflammatory processes, is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, a chronic psychiatric disorder with complex etiology. Distinct gene variants of a number of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines together with their receptors associate with this disorder. Interleukin-2 receptor gamma (IL-2RG) represents an important signaling component of many interleukin receptors and so far, no data on the functional state of this receptor in schizophrenia have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate mRNA expression of the IL2RG gene (IL2RG) in schizophrenia patients in comparison with healthy subjects (controls). Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood of 66 schizophrenia patients and 99 healthy subjects of Armenian population. The mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using PSMB2 as housekeeping gene. IL2RG mRNA expression was upregulated in peripheral blood of patients in comparison with controls (patients vs. controls, median [interquartile range]: 2.080 [3.428-1.046] vs. 0.324 [0.856-0.000], p<0.0001). In conclusion, our findings suggest that over-expression of the IL2RG gene may be implicated in altered immune response in schizophrenia and contribute to the pathomechanisms of this disorder.Psychiatry Research 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.03.020 · 2.68 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We recently reported that the type-2 cytokine response is increased in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of antipsychotic drugs on the serum levels of type-1 (TNF-α, IFN-γ), type-2 (IL-4, IL-10), type-17 (IL-17) and regulatory cytokines (TGF-β, IL-27 and IL-6). METHODS: Cytokine measurements in the patients were performed on day 0 and day 30 of the treatment using standard ELISA assays. Three groups of subjects were studied: patients that were unmedicated with First Episode Psychosis (FEP; n=88), patients that were treated with antipsychotics with Schizophrenia in relapse (SC in relapse; n=45) and healthy controls (n=36). RESULTS: TGF-β levels were increased in both patient groups and were further enhanced after treatment in the FEP group (p=0.014) but not in the SC relapse group. Antipsychotic treatment was correlated with lower levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-27 (p<0.005) in the FEP group. Finally, the serum levels of IL-17 were not significantly altered between the two measurements but were significantly lower in the FEP group (p<0.001) when compared with healthy controls. After therapy, patients with SC who were in relapse had decreased serum levels of IL-4 (p=0.006) and IL-6 (p=0.007). We also observed a weak negative correlation between the IFN-γ/TGF-β ratio and the total PANSS score and between the IL-17/TGF-β ratio and the negative and general psychopathology subscales. CONCLUSION: The increased type-2 cytokine serum levels in schizophrenia appear to be downregulated by antipsychotic treatment.Schizophrenia Research 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2013.03.027 · 4.43 Impact Factor