Substrate selectivity and pH dependence of KAAT1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.
ABSTRACT When expressed in Xenopus oocytes KAAT1 increases tenfold the transport of l-leucine. Substitution of NaCl with 100 mm LiCl, RbCl or KCl allows a reduced but significant activation of l-leucine uptakes. Chloride-dependence is not strict since other pseudohalide anions such as thyocyanate are accepted. KAAT1 is highly sensitive to pH. It can transport l-leucine at pH 5.5 and 8, but the maximum uptake has been observed at pH 10, near to the physiological pH value, when amino and carboxylic groups are both deprotonated. The pH value mainly influences the V(max) in Na(+) activation curves and l-leucine kinetics. The kinetic parameters are K(mNa) = 4.6 +/- 2 mm, V(maxNa) = 14.8 +/- 1.7 pmol/oocyte/5 min for pH 8.0 and K(mNa) = 2. 8 +/- 0.7 mm, V(maxNa) = 31.3 +/- 1.9 pmol/oocyte/5 min for pH 10.0. The kinetic parameters of l-leucine uptake are: K(m) = 120.4 +/- 24. 2 microm, V(max) = 23.2 +/- 1.4 pmol/oocyte/5 min at pH 8.0 and K(m) = 81.3 +/- 24.2 microm, V(max) = 65.6 +/- 3.9 pmol/oocyte/5 min at pH 10.0. On the basis of inhibition experiments, the structural features required for KAAT1 substrates are: (i) a carboxylic group, (ii) an unsubstituted alpha-amino group, (iii) the side chain is unnecessary, if present it should be uncharged regardless of length and ramification.
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ABSTRACT: The characteristics of K+-l-phenylalanine cotransport across brush border membrane vesicles isolated from the midgut of two lepidopteran larvae were studied. The amino acid is cotransported mainly with K+ and Na+, whereas other alkali metal cations are much less effective. The amino acid uptake displayed saturation kinetics with respect to external K+ concentration and with respect to external amino acid concentration. In the latter case a free diffusion component was evident. The activation by K+ involved an increase in and a decrease in . The involvement of alkali cations in amino acid absorption was also confirmed in the isolated midgut, by replacing K+ with other monovalent cations in the luminal side only or on both sides. A possible model for amino acid absorption in the midgut of lepidopteran larvae, with K+ as cotransported cation, is proposed and discussed.Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-biomembranes - BBA-BIOMEMBRANES. 01/1982; 692(1):81-88.
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ABSTRACT: Amino acids enter rabbit jejunal brush border membrane vesicles via three major transport systems: (1) simple passive diffusion; (2) Na-independent carriers; and (3) Na-dependent carriers. The passive permeability sequence of amino acids is very similar to that observed in other studies involving natural and artificial membranes. Based on uptake kinetics and cross-inhibition profiles, at least two Na-independent and three Na-dependent carrier-mediated pathways exist. One Na-independent pathway, similar to the classical L system, favors neutral amino acids, while the other pathway favors dibasic amino acids such as lysine. One Na-dependent pathway primarily serves neutral L-amino acids including 2-amino-2-norbornanecarboxylic acid hemihydrate (BCH), but not beta-alanine or alpha-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB). Another Na-dependent route favors phenylalanine and methionine, while the third pathway is selective for imino acids and MeAIB. Li is unable to substitute for Na in these systems. Cross-inhibition profiles indicated that none of the Na-dependent systems conform to classical A or ACS paradigms. Other notable features of jejunal brush border vesicles include (1) no beta-alanine carrier, and (2) no major proline/glycine interactions.Journal of Membrane Biology 02/1982; 66(3):213-25. · 2.48 Impact Factor