Prevalence of subclinical Salmonella enterica infection in Danish finishing pig herds
ABSTRACT Our aim was to determine the Salmonella enterica prevalence in 96 randomly selected Danish pig herds, based on serological examination of blood samples and bacteriological examination of faecal samples (collected simultaneously from the same pens). For comparison, 39 high-seroprevalence herds were included in the study. The representativeness of the selected herds was assessed, based on descriptive statistics of herd size and type. Totals of 1330 pen samples and 6814 blood samples were examined.The results from the meat-juice screening in the Danish S. enterica Control Programme were available for 3372 meat-juice samples from 91 of the 96 randomly selected herds and 1195 meat-juice samples from 37 of the 39 high-seroprevalence herds. Of the 96 randomly selected herds, 23 herds had no positive pen samples (out of 10), no positive blood samples (out of 50) and no positive meat-juice samples (out of approximately 30-40 samples in 6 months). Ten herds had one or more positive meat-juice samples but were otherwise negative. S. Typhimurium was isolated from 30 of the 39 high-seroprevalence herds. Our conclusions were: (1) The within-herd seroprevalence among the 96 randomly selected Danish pig herds was low (average within-herd seroprevalence=2%, maximum=32%). (2) Among the 39 high-seroprevalence herds (recently assigned level 3 in the S. enterica Control Programme), S. enterica was isolated from 77% of the herds when 10 pen samples were examined bacteriologically. (3) Seropositivity tended to be related to the presence of S. Typhimurium.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to analyse in further detail the Danish results of the EFSA baseline studies in slaughter pigs and breeding herds, and compare them with the results obtained in (1) the pre-implementation study that was carried out to establish the initial prevalence values in fattening herds as part of the Danish Salmonella control programme, and (2) the study performed four years later in breeding and finishing herds to obtain information about the prevalence in breeding farms and the status of the finishers after the first years of the National Salmonella Control Programme. In the slaughter pigs Salmonella was detected in a 7.4% of 1218 ileocaecal lymph nodes and on 3.2% of 438 carcasses examined. Among the breeding herds examined by floor faecal or swab samples 122 of 298 (40.9%) were positive in at least one of the ten samples collected. The most prevalent serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium in finishers and Salmonella Derby in breeding herds while the most prevalent phage types of the S. Typhimurium isolates were DT 12 and DT 120. The antimicrobial resistance analysis yielded a 35.2% of the isolates from the slaughter pigs resistant to one or more antimicrobials while 19.3% were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. A significantly higher percentage of resistance to antimicrobials was found in the S. Typhimurium isolates (χ(2)=4.72, p=0.029), where 42.9% presented resistance to one or more compounds. In breeding herds, just S. Typhimurium and S. 4,5],12:i: - isolates were tested. As many as 56.8% of the S. Typhimurium-like strains positive breeding farms had resistant strains, while 27% had multidrug resistant strains. The distribution of the isolates in regions showed that S. Derby is at present the predominant serotype in breeding farms from most of the regions of the country.Research in Veterinary Science 04/2013; 95(2). DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.04.001 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: On-farm reduction of Salmonella carriage prevalence in pigs requires the identification of risk factors to direct interventions development. This study was designed to determine if split marketing of finishing pigs constitutes a risk factor for Salmonella infections, by comparing Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for harvest ("first pull") versus the prevalence in the last group of pigs selected for harvest ("close out") from multiple commercial finishing lots. Nine paired samplings were conducted consisting in matched groups of pigs from individual barns as the first pull and the close out with a 4-week interval between groups. From each group, fecal and meat samples were collected, on-farm and at harvest, respectively. Fecal samples were selectively enriched, and analyzed for the presence of Salmonella, whereas meat juice samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Salmonella. In 7/9 (77.8%) of the studied barns, an increase in Salmonella prevalence was observed, based on both bacteriologic and serologic analysis. Overall, there was an increase of 9.2% (p < 0.05) in bacteriologic prevalence, and 31.3% (p < 0.05) in serologic prevalence from first pull to close out groups. This study demonstrates that a significant increase in Salmonella prevalence occurs between the first and the last group of pigs harvested from finishing lots, with close out groups of market pigs posing a higher risk for Salmonella contaminations.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 09/2009; 6(7):865-9. DOI:10.1089/fpd.2009.0309 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 1995, Denmark implemented a National Surveillance-and-Control Programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs. It was based on serological surveillance that enabled assignment of pig herds into three prevalence levels. Herds in levels 2 and 3 (corresponding to moderate and high Salmonella seroprevalence) were subjected to control measures, compulsory pen faecal sampling for bacteriological examination and serotyping. The initial dataset contained all herds that had mandatory bacteriological samples taken (N=3691 samples), out of which 44.4% were negative. Data from January 2005 to November 2007 obtained from the Danish programme were used to investigate the persistence of high serology (Salmonella index > or =40, corresponding to levels 2 or 3) for herds infected with one of the four most common Salmonella serotypes found in pig herds, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby, S. Infantis or S. Livingstone, using survival analysis. The effects of other potential factors, such as season, year, herd size and herd health status were also evaluated. An event was defined as return to low serology measured by a Salmonella index <40, for at least 6 consecutive months. A total of 1242 pig herds positive for one of the four serotypes of interest and 1433 events were included in the preliminary analysis using the Kaplan-Meyer method. The median high serology time (survival time) was 8 months and all explanatory variables were found to be significant (p<0.05), except the herd health status (p=0.49). Cox proportional hazards regression was used for herds infected with S. Typhimurium (N=1066) or S. Derby (N=314). Herds infected with S. Typhimurium presented a lower probability for returning to low serology (HR=0.69, p<0.001), compared to S. Derby, indicating longer high serology periods. Herds that started having high seroprevalence in Summer and Fall had a higher probability of returning to low serology compared to those starting in Winter and Spring (p<0.001). Compared to 2005, periods with high Salmonella serology were fewer and shorter in 2006 and 2007 (p<0.001). A positive impact of herd size was found, with larger herds being associated with shorter high serology periods, compared to smaller herds (p=0.012). This might indicate effective implementation of biosecurity measures in large herds. The health status of the herds was not found to be a significant factor (p=0.87), which might reflect that biosecurity measures in place in SPF herds are not effective for clearing Salmonella infections.Preventive Veterinary Medicine 09/2009; 92(4):301-8. DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.08.005 · 2.51 Impact Factor