Analysis of the HNF4 alpha gene in Caucasian type II diabetic nephropathic patients.
ABSTRACT Linkage and association studies in Caucasian patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus suggest that one or more diabetes susceptibility gene(s) reside within human chromosome 20q12-13.1. This region of chromosome 20 contains the maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 1 gene, HNF4 alpha. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible involvement of HNF4 alpha in Type II diabetes.
Mutation analysis was done on the 12 exons and promoter regions of the HNF4 alpha gene in 182 Caucasian diabetic nephropathic patients and 100 Caucasian control subjects. The functional consequences of a novel promoter mutation were examined using a reporter system in the HepG2 liver cell line and electrophoretic mobility shift assays.
We identified two novel mutations in the HNF4 alpha, an R323H missense mutation in exon 8, and a 7 bp deletion (delta 7) in the proximal promoter region resulting in deletion of a single putative Sp1 binding site. Using a reporter assay system, the delta 7 sequence was found to exhibit a 51.2% (standard error +/- 4.2%) reduction in promoter activity relative to the normal sequence. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays using specific and non-specific competitors, the delta 7 sequence had a 45.5% (range 40.4-46.6) reduction in binding compared with the normal sequence. The delta 7 allele occurs in a family with multiple cases of Type II diabetes in a pattern consistent with coinheritance of the delta 7 allele and diabetes.
Analysis of the HNF4 alpha gene revealed two possible mutations in 182 diabetic patients which suggests that the HNF4 alpha gene does not make a large contribution to diabetes susceptibility in the general population of Caucasian diabetic nephropathic patients. Functional analysis of the delta 7 promoter deletion suggests, however, that promoter mutations in otherwise normal genes could contribute to diabetes susceptibility.
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ABSTRACT: We describe a diabetic child and her relatives carrying the HNF4A R311H mutation. The proband was diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes when 9.1 year-old. Three weeks later, a complete remission occurred. She underwent genetic testing showing the HNF4A-R311H mutation, which was found also in the brother (with impaired glucose tolerance), the mother (with gestational diabetes), and the maternal uncle (with type 2 diabetes). This case suggests that the HNF4A R311H mutation may play a role on hyperglycaemia since childhood and may be associated with clinical heterogeneity of abnormal glucose homeostasis. Transient diabetes might warrant the screening for MODY when indicated.Italian journal of pediatrics. 06/2014; 40(1):58.
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ABSTRACT: The hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4α) gene codes for a transcription factor which is responsible for regulating gene transcription in pancreatic beta cells, in addition to its primary role in hepatic gene regulation. Mutations in this gene can lead to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), an uncommon, autosomal dominant, non-insulin dependent form of diabetes. Mutations in HNF4α have been found in few individuals, and infrequently have they segregated completely with MODY in families. In addition, due to similarity of phenotypes, it is unclear what proportion of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the general population is due to MODY or HNF4α mutations specifically. In this study, 27 documented rare and common variants were genotyped in a European American population of 1270 T2DM cases and 1017 controls from review of databases and literature implicating HNF4α variants in MODY and T2DM. Seventeen variants were found to be monomorphic. Two cases and one control subject had one copy of a 6-bp P2 promoter deletion. The intron 1 variant (rs6103716; MAF = 0.31) was not significantly associated with disease status (p>0.8) and the missense variant Thr130Ile (rs1800961; MAF = 0.027) was also not significantly different between cases and controls (p>0.2), but showed a trend consistent with association with T2DM. Four variants were found to be rare as heterozygotes in small numbers of subjects. Since many variants were infrequent, a pooled chi-squared analysis of rare variants was used to assess the overall burden of variants between cases and controls. This analysis revealed no significant difference (P=0.22). We conclude there is little evidence to suggest that HNF4α variants contribute significantly to risk of T2DM in the general population, but a modest contribution cannot be excluded. In addition, the observation of some mutations in controls suggests they are not highly penetrant MODY-causing variants.Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism 10/2011; 2(145).
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ABSTRACT: The lung is directly exposed to a wide variety of inhaled toxicants and carcinogens. In order to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these compounds in the respiratory tract, we investigated the mRNA expression level of 380 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME), transporters, nuclear receptors and transcription factors, in pulmonary parenchyma (PP), bronchial mucosa (BM) and tumoral lung tissues from 12 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using a high throughput quantitative real-time RT-PCR method, we found that ADH1B, CYP4B1, CES1 and GSTP1 are the major XME genes expressed both in BM and PP. Our results also documented the predominant role played by the xenosensor AhR in human lung. The gene expression profiles were different for BM and PP, with a tendency toward increased mRNA levels of phase I and phase II XME genes in BM, suggesting major differences in the initial stages of xenobiotic metabolism. Some of the significantly overexpressed genes in BM (i.e. CYP2F1, CYP2A13, CYP2W1, NQO1…) encode proteins involved in the bioactivation of procarcinogens, pointing out distinct susceptibility to xenobiotics and their toxic effects between these two tissue types. Additionally, interindividual differences in transcript levels observed for some genes may be of genetic origin and may contribute to the variability in response to environmental exposure and, consequently, in the risk of developing lung diseases. A global decrease in gene expression was observed in tumoral specimens. Some of the proteins are involved in the metabolism or transport of anti-cancer drugs and their influence in the response of tumors to chemotherapy should be considered. In conclusion, the present study provides an overview of the cellular response to toxicants and drugs in healthy and cancerous human lung tissues, and thus improves our understanding of the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis as well as cellular resistance to chemotherapy.Biochimie 03/2011; 93(6):1012-27. · 3.14 Impact Factor